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      Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study.

          Methods

          Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP). Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group.

          Results

          The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years). Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96); type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14); liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45).

          Conclusions

          Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

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          Most cited references 33

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          The global burden of injuries.

          The traditional view of injuries as "accidents", or random events, has resulted in the historical neglect of this area of public health. However, the most recent estimates show that injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in the world. They affect all populations, regardless of age, sex, income, or geographic region. In 1998, about 5.8 million people (97.9 per 100,000 population) died of injuries worldwide, and injuries caused 16% of the global burden of disease. Road traffic injuries are the 10th leading cause of death and the 9th leading cause of the burden of disease; self-inflicted injuries, falls, and interpersonal violence follow closely. Injuries affect mostly young people, often causing long-term disability. Decreasing the burden of injuries is among the main challenges for public health in the next century--injuries are preventable, and many effective strategies are available. Public health officials must gain a better understanding of the magnitude and characteristics of the problem, contribute to the development and evaluation of injury prevention programs, and develop the best possible prehospital and hospital care and rehabilitation for injured persons.
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            Multilevel modelling of medical data.

            This tutorial presents an overview of multilevel or hierarchical data modelling and its applications in medicine. A description of the basic model for nested data is given and it is shown how this can be extended to fit flexible models for repeated measures data and more complex structures involving cross-classifications and multiple membership patterns within the software package MLwiN. A variety of response types are covered and both frequentist and Bayesian estimation methods are described. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Injury-related fatalities in China: an under-recognised public-health problem.

               SY Wang,  YH Li,  GB Chi (2008)
              The May 2008 earthquake in Wenchuan drew attention to the important but largely unrecognised public-health problem of injury-related mortality and morbidity in China. Injuries account for more than 10% of all deaths and more than 30% of all potentially productive years of life lost due to premature mortality in China. Traffic-related injuries (mainly among cyclists and pedestrians), suicide, drowning, and falls account for 79% of all injury deaths. Rural injury death rates are double those of urban rates and male rates are double those of female rates. Despite an 81% increase in the traffic-related mortality from 1987 to 2006-associated with rapid motorisation-the overall injury mortality decreased by 17%, largely due to a surprising (and unexplained) 57% reduction in the suicide rate. Low-cost prevention measures that are most likely to produce large reductions in injury deaths include enforcement of laws for drinking and driving and for seat belt and helmet use, restriction of access to the most potent pesticides, and teaching children to swim. China needs to improve monitoring of fatal and non-fatal injuries, promote intersectoral collaboration, build institutional capacities, and, most importantly, mobilise community support and political will for investment in prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central
                1471-2458
                2011
                5 July 2011
                : 11
                : 531
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, China
                [2 ]Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou 325027, China
                [3 ]Department of Psychology, School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, China
                [4 ]The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, No.2, Fu Xue Road, Wenzhou 325000, China
                Article
                1471-2458-11-531
                10.1186/1471-2458-11-531
                3142514
                21729294
                Copyright ©2011 Shi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Public health

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