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      Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset

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          Abstract

          Traditional screen time (e.g. TV and videogaming) has been linked to sleep problems and poorer developmental outcomes in children. With the advent of portable touchscreen devices, this association may be extending down in age to disrupt the sleep of infants and toddlers, an age when sleep is essential for cognitive development. However, this association has not been demonstrated empirically. This study aims to examine whether frequency of touchscreen use is associated with sleep in infants and toddlers between 6 and 36 months of age. An online survey was administered to 715 parents reporting on child media use (daily exposure to TV and use of touchscreens), sleep patterns (night-time and daytime sleep duration, sleep onset - time to fall asleep, and frequencies of night awakenings). Structural equation models controlling for age, sex, TV exposure and maternal education indicated a significant association between touchscreen use and night-time sleep, daytime sleep and sleep onset. No significant effect was observed for the number of night awakenings. To our knowledge, this is the first report linking the use of touchscreen with sleep problems in infants and toddlers. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of effects and the mechanisms underlying these associations using detailed sleep tracking.

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          Most cited references28

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          Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

          Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature

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              Association Between Portable Screen-Based Media Device Access or Use and Sleep Outcomes

              Sleep is vital to children's biopsychosocial development. Inadequate sleep quantity and quality is a public health concern with an array of detrimental health outcomes. Portable mobile and media devices have become a ubiquitous part of children's lives and may affect their sleep duration and quality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                13 April 2017
                2017
                : 7
                : 46104
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London , London, UK
                [2 ]Biostatistics Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London , London, UK
                [3 ]Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London , London, UK
                Author notes
                Article
                srep46104
                10.1038/srep46104
                5390665
                28406474
                083ebf52-e47c-4c3d-95b1-b1cc2d075fde
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 10 November 2016
                : 08 March 2017
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