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      Interferon-β Is a Potent Inducer of Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/2-Dependent IP-10/CXCL10 Expression in Primary Human Endothelial Cells


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          Most virus-infected cells release interferon-β (IFN-β) as a powerful inducer of antiviral defense. Endothelial cells tightly regulate local immune cell recruitment by expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines. Here, we studied the transcriptional regulation of IFN-β-induced chemokine expression in primary human endothelial cells. IFN-β moderately increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 and potently raised IFN-γ-inducible protein-10/CXCL10 mRNA steady-state levels and protein release, while no effect was detected on various other chemokines. As shown by transient transfections, induction of CXCL10 expression depends on an IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) within the CXCL10 promoter. A double point mutation of the putative IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-1/2 binding site within this ISRE motif abolished IFN-β-induced promoter activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, this ISRE motif showed a basal IRF-2 and an IFN-β-inducible IRF-1 and augmented IRF-2 binding. Furthermore, stimulation with IFN-β induced a rapid nuclear translocation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2 and their transient binding to a γ-activated site within the CCL2 promoter. The kinetics of transient STAT1 binding to this γ-activated site element correlated with the amount of Y701-phosphorylated nuclear STAT1, while S727-phosphorylated nuclear STAT1 remained stable over 24 h after stimulation. Therefore, IFN-β potently induces endothelial chemokine expression at the transcriptional level.

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          Most cited references 26

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          IRF family of transcription factors as regulators of host defense.

          Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) constitute a family of transcription factors that commonly possess a novel helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. Following the initial identification of two structurally related members, IRF-1 and IRF-2, seven additional members have now been reported. In addition, virally encoded IRFs, which may interfere with cellular IRFs, have also been identified. Thus far, intensive functional analyses have been done on IRF-1, revealing a remarkable functional diversity of this transcription factor in the regulation of cellular response in host defense. Indeed, IRF-1 selectively modulates different sets of genes, depending on the cell type and/or the nature of cellular stimuli, in order to evoke appropriate responses in each. More recently, much attention has also been focused on other IRF family members. Their functional roles, through interactions with their own or other members of the family of transcription factors, are becoming clearer in the regulation of host defense, such as innate and adaptive immune responses and oncogenesis.
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            Recombinant human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a chemoattractant for human monocytes and T lymphocytes and promotes T cell adhesion to endothelial cells

            The human cytokine interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a small glycoprotein secreted by activated T cells, monocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, and is structurally related to a family of chemotactic cytokines called chemokines. Although this protein is present in sites of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and lepromatous leprosy lesions, the biological activity of IP-10 remains unknown. We report here that recombinant human IP-10 stimulated significant in vitro chemotaxis of human peripheral blood monocytes but not neutrophils. Recombinant human IP-10 also stimulated chemotaxis of stimulated, but not unstimulated, human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Phenotypic analysis of the stimulated T cell population responsive to IP-10 demonstrated that stimulated CD4+ and CD29+ T cells migrated in response to IP-10. This resembles the biological activity of the previously described T cell chemoattractant RANTES. Using an endothelial cell adhesion assay, we demonstrated that stimulated T cells pretreated with optimal doses of IP-10 exhibited a greatly enhanced ability to bind to an interleukin 1-treated endothelial cell monolayer. These results demonstrate that the IP-10 gene encodes for an inflammatory mediator that specifically stimulates the directional migration of T cells and monocytes as well as potentiates T cell adhesion to endothelium.
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              Chemokines: immunology's high impact factors.

              Chemokines facilitate leukocyte migration and positioning as well as other processes such as angiogenesis and leukocyte degranulation. The burgeoning knowledge on chemokines and their receptors has influenced many aspects of immunology, in part because cell migration is intimately related to leukocyte function. This overview assesses the impact that chemokines have had on our understanding of immunology and infectious diseases. These include the role of chemokines in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions; dendritic cell function; T cell differentiation and function; inflammatory diseases; mucosal and subcutaneous immunity; and subversion of immune responses by viruses, including HIV-1. This knowledge heralds new opportunities for the manipulation of immune responses and the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies. It has also provided a new perspective on the functioning of the immune system.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                January 2007
                13 December 2006
                : 44
                : 1
                : 51-60
                Departments of aNeurology and bMolecular Pathology, Julius-Maximilians University, Würzburg, Germany
                97977 J Vasc Res 2007;44:51–60
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 51, Pages: 10
                Research Paper


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