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      CRISPR interference: RNA-directed adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea

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      Nature Reviews Genetics
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Sequence-directed genetic interference pathways control gene expression and preserve genome integrity in all kingdoms of life. The importance of such pathways is highlighted by the extensive study of RNA interference (RNAi) and related processes in eukaryotes. In many bacteria and most archaea, clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are involved in a more recently discovered interference pathway that protects cells from bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids. CRISPR sequences provide an adaptive, heritable record of past infections and express CRISPR RNAs - small RNAs that target invasive nucleic acids. Here, we review the mechanisms of CRISPR interference and its roles in microbial physiology and evolution. We also discuss potential applications of this novel interference pathway.

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          Most cited references69

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          Intervening sequences of regularly spaced prokaryotic repeats derive from foreign genetic elements.

          Prokaryotes contain short DN repeats known as CRISPR, recognizable by the regular spacing existing between the recurring units. They represent the most widely distributed family of repeats among prokaryotic genomes suggesting a biological function. The origin of the intervening sequences, at present unknown, could provide clues about their biological activities. Here we show that CRISPR spacers derive from preexisting sequences, either chromosomal or within transmissible genetic elements such as bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids. Remarkably, these extrachromosomal elements fail to infect the specific spacer-carrier strain, implying a relationship between CRISPR and immunity against targeted DNA. Bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids are involved in prokaryotic population control, evolution, and pathogenicity. All these biological traits could be influenced by the presence of specific spacers. CRISPR loci can be visualized as mosaics of a repeated unit, separated by sequences at some time present elsewhere in the cell.
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            CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA.

            Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacteria and archaea occurs through phage transduction, transformation, or conjugation, and the latter is particularly important for the spread of antibiotic resistance. Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci confer sequence-directed immunity against phages. A clinical isolate of Staphylococcus epidermidis harbors a CRISPR spacer that matches the nickase gene present in nearly all staphylococcal conjugative plasmids. Here we show that CRISPR interference prevents conjugation and plasmid transformation in S. epidermidis. Insertion of a self-splicing intron into nickase blocks interference despite the reconstitution of the target sequence in the spliced mRNA, which indicates that the interference machinery targets DNA directly. We conclude that CRISPR loci counteract multiple routes of HGT and can limit the spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria.
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              Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin.

              Numerous prokaryote genomes contain structures known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), composed of 25-50 bp repeats separated by unique sequence spacers of similar length. CRISPR structures are found in the vicinity of four genes named cas1 to cas4. In silico analysis revealed another cluster of three genes associated with CRISPR structures in many bacterial species, named here as cas1B, cas5 and cas6, and also revealed a certain number of spacers that have homology with extant genes, most frequently derived from phages, but also derived from other extrachromosomal elements. Sequence analysis of CRISPR structures from 24 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus vestibularis confirmed the homology of spacers with extrachromosomal elements. Phage sensitivity of S. thermophilus strains appears to be correlated with the number of spacers in the CRISPR locus the strain carries. The authors suggest that the spacer elements are the traces of past invasions by extrachromosomal elements, and hypothesize that they provide the cell immunity against phage infection, and more generally foreign DNA expression, by coding an anti-sense RNA. The presence of gene fragments in CRISPR structures and the nuclease motifs in cas genes of both cluster types suggests that CRISPR formation involves a DNA degradation step.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Genetics
                Nat Rev Genet
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1471-0056
                1471-0064
                March 2010
                February 2 2010
                March 2010
                : 11
                : 3
                : 181-190
                Article
                10.1038/nrg2749
                2928866
                20125085
                0845873a-53d0-4dee-bfd4-15ff699bf673
                © 2010

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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