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      A Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Reduces Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Angiotensin II-Infused Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

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          Background/Aims: Aberrant expression of components of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzyme system is implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. We aimed to investigate the influence of a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (HDACi) metacept-1 (MCT-1), previously documented to reduce MMP expression, on HDAC activity and MMP expression in aortic smooth muscle cells and the in vivo incidence of AAAs. Methods: Western blot and gelatin zymography were used to determine HDAC activity and MMP-2 expression and activity in rat (rVSMCs) and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) in vitro. In vivo AAAs were generated using apolipoprotein E-deficient mice infused with angiotensin (Ang) II. Immunohistochemistry detected MMP-2 and -9 expression in AAA tissue samples. Results: In vitro, MCT-1 inhibited HDAC activity in rVSMCs, and MMP-2 expression and proteolytic activity in hVSMCs.In vivo, Ang II treatment alone exhibited an AAA incidence of 84%. Doxycycline decreased the incidence of AAAs to 50%. Importantly, MCT-1 reduced AAA incidence to approximately 44%. MMP-2 and -9 immunoreactivity was reduced in MCT-1-treated aortic tissue. Conclusion: The novel HDACi MCT-1 inhibits MMP expressionand AAA incidence suggesting this compound may warrant further investigation in the context of AAA biology.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Angiotensin II promotes atherosclerotic lesions and aneurysms in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

          Increased plasma concentrations of angiotension II (Ang II) have been implicated in atherogenesis. To examine this relationship directly, we infused Ang II or vehicle for 1 month via osmotic minipumps into mature apoE(-/-) mice. These doses of Ang II did not alter arterial blood pressure, body weight, serum cholesterol concentrations, or distribution of lipoprotein cholesterol. However, Ang II infusions promoted an increased severity of aortic atherosclerotic lesions. These Ang II-induced lesions were predominantly lipid-laden macrophages and lymphocytes; moreover, Ang II promoted a marked increase in the number of macrophages present in the adventitial tissue underlying lesions. Unexpectedly, pronounced abdominal aortic aneurysms were present in apoE(-/-) mice infused with Ang II. Sequential sectioning of aneurysmal abdominal aorta revealed two major characteristics: an intact artery that is surrounded by a large remodeled adventitia, and a medial break with pronounced dilation and more modestly remodeled adventitial tissue. Although no atherosclerotic lesions were visible at the medial break point, the presence of hyperlipidemia was required because infusions of Ang II into apoE(+/+) mice failed to generate aneurysms. These results demonstrate that increased plasma concentrations of Ang II have profound and rapid effects on vascular pathology when combined with hyperlipidemia, in the absence of hemodynamic influences.
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            Targeted gene disruption of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B) suppresses development of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.

            Abdominal aortic aneurysms represent a life-threatening condition characterized by chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and increased local expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Both 92-kD gelatinase (MMP-9) and macrophage elastase (MMP-12) have been implicated in this disease, but it is not known if either is necessary in aneurysmal degeneration. We show here that transient elastase perfusion of the mouse aorta results in delayed aneurysm development that is temporally associated with transmural mononuclear inflammation, increased local production of several elastolytic MMPs, and progressive destruction of the elastic lamellae. Elastase-induced aneurysmal degeneration was suppressed by treatment with a nonselective MMP inhibitor (doxycycline) and by targeted gene disruption of MMP-9, but not by isolated deficiency of MMP-12. Bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice prevented the aneurysm-resistant phenotype in MMP-9-deficient animals, and wild-type mice acquired aneurysm resistance after transplantation from MMP-9-deficient donors. These results demonstrate that inflammatory cell expression of MMP-9 plays a critical role in an experimental model of aortic aneurysm disease, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting MMP-9 may limit the growth of small abdominal aortic aneurysms.
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              The antitumor histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid exhibits antiinflammatory properties via suppression of cytokines.

              Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a hydroxamic acid-containing hybrid polar molecule; SAHA specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of histone deacetylase. Although SAHA, like other inhibitors of histone deacetylase, exhibits antitumor effects by increasing expression of genes regulating tumor survival, we found that SAHA reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro. A single oral administration of SAHA to mice dose-dependently reduced circulating TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, and IFN-gamma induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Administration of SAHA also reduced hepatic cellular injury in mice following i.v. injection of Con A. SAHA inhibited nitric oxide release in mouse macrophages stimulated by the combination of TNF-alpha plus IFN-gamma. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with LPS in the presence of SAHA released less TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-12, and IFN-gamma (50% reduction at 100-200 nM). The production of IFN-gamma stimulated by IL-18 plus IL-12 was also inhibited by SAHA (85% at 200 nM). However, SAHA did not affect LPS-induced synthesis of the IL-1-beta precursor, the IL-1 receptor antagonist, or the chemokine IL-8. In addition, IFN-gamma induced by anti-CD3 was not suppressed by SAHA. Steady-state mRNA levels for LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were markedly decreased, whereas IL-8 and IL-1-beta mRNA levels were unaffected. Because SAHA exhibits antiinflammatory properties in vivo and in vitro, inhibitors of histone deacetylase may stimulate the expression of genes that control the synthesis of cytokines and nitric oxide or hyperacetylate other targets.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                February 2008
                24 October 2007
                : 45
                : 2
                : 143-152
                aDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, and bDepartment of Medicine, Australian Center for Blood Diseases, Eastern Clinical Research Unit, Biotechnology Division, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
                110041 J Vasc Res 2008;45:143–152
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 40, Pages: 10
                Research Paper


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