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      Effect of the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the microbial community in the rhizosphere of lettuce under field conditions analyzed by whole metagenome sequencing

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          Abstract

          Application of the plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) confirmed its capability to promote plant growth and health by reducing disease severity (DS) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore this strain is commercially applied as an eco-friendly plant protective agent. It is able to produce cyclic lipopeptides (CLP) and polyketides featuring antifungal and antibacterial properties. Production of these secondary metabolites led to the question of a possible impact of strain FZB42 on the composition of microbial rhizosphere communities after its application. Rating of DS and lettuce growth during a field trial confirmed the positive impact of strain FZB42 on the health of the host plant. To verify B. amyloliquefaciens as an environmentally compatible plant protective agent, its effect on the indigenous rhizosphere community was analyzed by metagenome sequencing. Rhizosphere microbial communities of lettuce treated with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and non-treated plants were profiled by high-throughput metagenome sequencing of whole community DNA. Fragment recruitments of metagenome sequence reads on the genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 proved the presence of the strain in the rhizosphere over 5 weeks of the field trial. Comparison of taxonomic community profiles only revealed marginal changes after application of strain FZB42. The orders Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales were most abundant in all samples. Depending on plant age a general shift within the composition of the microbial communities that was independent of the application of strain FZB42 was observed. In addition to the taxonomic profiling, functional analysis of annotated sequences revealed no major differences between samples regarding application of the inoculant strain.

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          Most cited references 25

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          GenBank

          GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 380 000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
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            Plant-driven selection of microbes

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              Interactions of Bacillus spp. and plants--with special reference to induced systemic resistance (ISR).

              Biological control of soil-borne pathogens comprises the decrease of inoculum or of the disease producing activity of a pathogen through one or more mechanisms. Interest in biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens has increased considerably in the last few decades, because it may provide control of diseases that cannot or only partly be managed by other control strategies. Recent advances in microbial and molecular techniques have significantly contributed to new insights in underlying mechanisms by which introduced bacteria function. Colonization of plant roots is an essential step for both soil-borne pathogenic and beneficial rhizobacteria. Colonization patterns showed that rhizobacteria act as biocontrol agents or as growth-promoting bacteria form microcolonies or biofilms at preferred sites of root exudation. Such microcolonies are sites for bacteria to communicate with each other (quorum sensing) and to act in a coordinated manner. Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria. Several strains of the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, B. pasteurii, B. cereus, B. pumilus, B. mycoides, and B. sphaericus elicit significant reductions in the incidence or severity of various diseases on a diversity of hosts. Elicitation of ISR by these strains has been demonstrated in greenhouse or field trials on tomato, bell pepper, muskmelon, watermelon, sugar beet, tobacco, Arabidopsis sp., cucumber, loblolly pine, and two tropical crops (long cayenne pepper and green kuang futsoi). Protection resulting from ISR elicited by Bacillus spp. has been reported against leaf-spotting fungal and bacterial pathogens, systemic viruses, a crown-rotting fungal pathogen, root-knot nematodes, and a stem-blight fungal pathogen as well as damping-off, blue mold, and late blight diseases. This progress will lead to a more efficient use of these strains which is worthwhile approach to explore in context of biocontrol strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                27 May 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                1Center for Biotechnology, Institute for Genome Research and Systems Biology, Bielefeld University Bielefeld, Germany
                2Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Großbeeren, Germany
                3Research Unit Microbe-Plant Interactions, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH) Neuherberg, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Michael Schloter, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Germany

                Reviewed by: Leo Van Overbeek, W-UR Plant Research International, Netherlands; David John Studholme, University of Exeter, UK; Anja Bettina Dohrmann, Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Germany

                *Correspondence: Andreas Schlüter, Center for Biotechnology, Institute for Genome Research and Systems Biology, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 27, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany e-mail: aschluet@ 123456cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de

                This article was submitted to Plant-Microbe Interaction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2014.00252
                4033844
                Copyright © 2014 Kröber, Wibberg, Grosch, Eikmeyer, Verwaaijen, Chowdhury, Hartmann, Pühler and Schlüter.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 11, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 16, Words: 10048
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research Article

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