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      Exercise as a prescription for patients with various diseases

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          Highlights

          • Exercise can be used as an active intervention for the rehabilitation of various diseases.
          • Exercise therapy could exert positive effects on alleviating the symptoms and improving the physical performance of patients who suffer from these diseases.
          • Exercise prescriptions could provide guidance for patients to engage in suitable physical activities to promote rehabilitation and physical function.

          Abstract

          A growing understanding of the benefits of exercise over the past few decades has prompted researchers to take an interest in the possibilities of exercise therapy. Because each sport has its own set of characteristics and physiological complications that tend to occur during exercise training, the effects and underlying mechanisms of exercise remain unclear. Thus, the first step in probing the effects of exercise on different diseases is the selection of an optimal exercise protocol. This review summarizes the latest exercise prescription treatments for 26 different diseases: musculoskeletal system diseases (low back pain, tendon injury, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and hip fracture), metabolic system diseases (obesity, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease), cardio-cerebral vascular system diseases (coronary artery disease, stroke, and chronic heart failure), nervous system diseases (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and anxiety disorders), respiratory system diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, and after lung transplantation), urinary system diseases (chronic kidney disease and after kidney transplantation), and cancers (breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer). Each exercise prescription is displayed in a corresponding table. The recommended type, intensity, and frequency of exercise prescriptions are summarized, and the effects of exercise therapy on the prevention and rehabilitation of different diseases are discussed.

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          Most cited references 227

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          Non-specific low back pain.

          Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review. The clinical course of low back pain is often favourable, thus many patients require little if any formal medical care. Two treatment strategies are currently used, a stepped approach beginning with more simple care that is progressed if the patient does not respond, and the use of simple risk prediction methods to individualise the amount and type of care provided. The overuse of imaging, opioids, and surgery remains a widespread problem.
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            The increasing burden of depression

            Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large.
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              Projections of US prevalence of arthritis and associated activity limitations.

              To update the projected prevalence of self-reported, doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations among US adults ages 18 years and older from 2005 through 2030. Baseline age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of arthritis and activity limitation, using the latest surveillance case definitions, were estimated from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey, which is an annual, cross-sectional, population-based health interview survey of approximately 31,000 adults. These estimates were used to calculate projected arthritis prevalence and activity limitations for 2005-2030 using future population projections obtained from the US Census Bureau. The prevalence of self-reported, doctor-diagnosed arthritis is projected to increase from 47.8 million in 2005 to nearly 67 million by 2030 (25% of the adult population). By 2030, 25 million (9.3% of the adult population) are projected to report arthritis-attributable activity limitations. In 2030, >50% of arthritis cases will be among adults older than age 65 years. However, working-age adults (45-64 years) will account for almost one-third of cases. By 2030, the number of US adults with arthritis and its associated activity limitation is expected to increase substantially, resulting in a large impact on individuals, the health care system, and society in general. The growing epidemic of obesity may also significantly contribute to the future burden of arthritis. Improving access and availability of current clinical and public health interventions aimed at improving quality of life among persons with arthritis through lifestyle changes and disease self-management may help lessen the long-term impact.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Sport Health Sci
                J Sport Health Sci
                Journal of Sport and Health Science
                Shanghai University of Sport
                2095-2546
                2213-2961
                18 April 2019
                September 2019
                18 April 2019
                : 8
                : 5
                : 422-441
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China
                [b ]Department of Sport, Huainan Normal University, Huainan 232038, China
                Author notes
                [†]

                These two authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                S2095-2546(19)30049-3
                10.1016/j.jshs.2019.04.002
                6742679
                © 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review article

                patients, diseases, exercise prescription

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