The present study examined the relationship between plasma prolactin (PRL) and central blood volume (CBV) in man. 6 adult males lay in a lower body pressure box at a thermoneutral ambient temperature (27 °C) on three occasions. On each occasion a 70-min control period was followed by a 20-min exposure to a lower body pressure of either 0 mm Hg, -20 (lower body negative pressure; LBNP), or + 10 mm Hg (lower body positive pressure; LBPP), followed by a 60-min recovery period. Blood was drawn and urine collected at 30-min intervals. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored at 30-min intervals during control and recovery periods and at 10-min intervals during lower body pressure exposure. Neither 0 mm Hg, LBNP, nor LBPP altered plasma osmolality, sodium, or potassium levels. Increasing CBV by LBPP increased systemic blood pressure (p < 0.01) but had no effect on heart rate, plasma PRL, or urine osmolality. LBNP, in contrast, increased heart rate (p < 0.05). Half of the subjects undergoing LBNP developed presyncopal symptoms, characteristic of a vasovagal reaction which includes precipitous hypotension. Subjects developing these symptoms tended to exhibit an increase in plasma PRL and an increase in urine osmolality. Asymptomatic subjects demonstrated no change in plasma PRL or urine osmolality. In addition, subjects exhibiting a PRL response to LBNP had a higher control period plasma PRL baseline (231%) than did asymptomatic subjects. These data suggest that while plasma PRL levels are not sensitive to nonhypotensive changes in CBV, they do respond to hypotensive decreases in CBV and/or its associated nausea. Furthermore, the elevated plasma PRL baseline in symptomatic subjects may indicate an increased susceptibility to a vasovagal response to LBNP.