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      Dry matter accumulation and crude protein concentration in Brachiaria spp. cultivars in the humid tropics of Ecuador Translated title: Acumulación de materia seca y concentración de proteína cruda en cultivares de Brachiaria spp. en el trópico húmedo de Ecuador

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          Abstract

          Abstract Climatic conditions throughout the year and age of plants affect both yield and quality of forage grasses. In this research, we evaluated the effects of age of regrowth and seasonal conditions on dry matter accumulation and crude protein concentration in 5 cultivars of Brachiaria spp.: Señal, Xaraés, Marandú, Piatá and Mulato II, harvested at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after a uniformity cut, during the rainy and dry seasons. The variables were: total dry matter (TDM), leaf dry matter (LDM) and stem dry matter (SDM) yields, leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA) and crude protein (CP) concentration. For TDM yield, in the rainy season there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among cultivars, with mean DM yield over 10 weeks of 6.34 t/ha; however, during the dry season Xaraés presented a higher (P<0.05) yield over 10 weeks than other cultivars (5.09 vs. 3.14-3.89 t/ha). Overall, mean DM yield in the dry season was only 62% of that in the wet season. In both periods, Señal tended to have the highest SDM yields, while Xaraés had the greatest (P<0.01) LDM yields in the dry season. Mulato II tended to have the highest CP concentrations throughout, especially in the dry season. This study was conducted in plots with plants only 12 weeks old at commencement. However, it indicated that all cultivars performed well and larger-scale studies of longer duration are warranted to test these cultivars under grazing, especially Mulato II, which showed both high dry matter yield and retention of high protein concentration throughout the study.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen En la finca experimental "El Oasis" de la Escuela de Ingeniería Agropecuaria, Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial, Campus Santo Domingo, Ecuador, en un suelo Andosol se evaluaron los efectos de la edad de rebrote y la época del año sobre la acumulación de materia seca y la concentración de proteína bruta en 5 cultivares de Brachiaria: Señal (B. decumbens), Xaraés (B. brizantha), Marandú (B. brizantha), Piatá (B. brizantha) y Mulato II (Brachiaria híbrido), cosechados a 2, 4, 6, 8 y 10 semanas después de un corte de uniformidad, durante las estaciones lluviosa y seca. Las variables evaluadas fueron la materia seca (MS) total, MS de hoja y de tallo, el índice de área foliar, el área foliar específica y la concentración de proteína bruta. El rendimiento de MS total a 10 semanas de rebrote (6.34 t/ha en promedio) en la estación de lluvias no varió entre cultivares (P>0.05) mientras en la estación seca el cv. Xaraés presentó el mayor rendimiento (P<0.05) en comparación con los demás cultivares (5.09 vs. 3.14-3.89 t/ha). El rendimiento de MS total en la época seca fue sólo el 62% del obtenido en la época de lluvia. En ambos períodos, el cv. Señal tendió a tener los rendimientos de MS de tallos más altos, mientras que el cv. Xaraés presentó los mayores rendimientos de MS de hojas (P<0.01) en la estación seca. El cv. Mulato II tendió a tener las mayores concentraciones de proteína bruta en ambas épocas, especialmente en la seca. Este estudio se realizó en parcelas con plantas de sólo 12 semanas de edad al inicio. Sin embargo, indicó que todos los cultivares se comportaron satisfactoriamente y estudios a mayor escala y de mayor duración se justifican para probar estos cultivares bajo pastoreo, especialmente el cv. Mulato II que mostró tanto un alto rendimiento de MS como una retención de alta concentración de proteína a lo largo del estudio.

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          Most cited references 38

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          From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning.

          Despite striking differences in climate, soils, and evolutionary history among diverse biomes ranging from tropical and temperate forests to alpine tundra and desert, we found similar interspecific relationships among leaf structure and function and plant growth in all biomes. Our results thus demonstrate convergent evolution and global generality in plant functioning, despite the enormous diversity of plant species and biomes. For 280 plant species from two global data sets, we found that potential carbon gain (photosynthesis) and carbon loss (respiration) increase in similar proportion with decreasing leaf life-span, increasing leaf nitrogen concentration, and increasing leaf surface area-to-mass ratio. Productivity of individual plants and of leaves in vegetation canopies also changes in constant proportion to leaf life-span and surface area-to-mass ratio. These global plant functional relationships have significant implications for global scale modeling of vegetation-atmosphere CO2 exchange.
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            Intake and digestibility in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds

            The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on intake, digestibility, and rumen microbial synthesis in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage. Five crossbred heifers, averaging 209 kg and fitted with ruminal fistulla, were used. The animals were fed ad libitum with signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.) hay, which had crude protein (CP) content of 5.08%, as dry matter (DM) basis. The five treatments were defined according to the increasing level of CP in the diet (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 percentile points above the forage CP level). The supplement consisted of the following nitrogen sources: urea, ammonium sulfate and albumin (4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively). The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five experimental periods. The average CP levels in the diets were: 5.28, 8.08, 9.82, 11.87, and 13.63% on DM basis. The intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) showed a quadratic response according to CP levels in the diet, with maximum responses at 10.83%, 10.78%, and 10.37% CP, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of OM and NDF showed a linear-response-plateau response according to CP levels, with the plateau beginning (maximum response) at 7.93% and 7.55% CP, respectively. The average daily concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen (RAN) was positively related with CP levels. The RAN estimate associated with the maximum DM intake was 15.33 mg/dL. It was observed that intestinal flow of microbial nitrogenous compounds and nitrogen intake became equivalent to each other at 7.13% of CP.
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              Acúmulo de forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens adubados com nitrogênio

              A dinâmica de crescimento de plantas forrageiras tem sido foco de estudo nos últimos anos, visando aprimorar o conhecimento do processo de produção de forragem em pastagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. adubados com nitrogênio e submetidos a uma mesma intensidade de pastejo. Os tratamentos consistiram de 75, 150, 225 e 300 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, aplicados antes do início das avaliações experimentais, as quais foram realizadas durante as estações de verão, outono, inverno e primavera de 2002. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com duas repetições. O capim-braquiária apresentou incremento de produção de matéria seca proporcional às doses de nitrogênio. Observaram-se maiores valores de taxa de acúmulo de folha, colmo e forragem nas estações primavera-verão e valores menores no inverno. As variações nas condições climáticas com as estações do ano alteraram as taxas de acúmulo de folha e colmo, senescência e de produção de forragem em Brachiaria decumbens.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                tgft
                Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicales
                Trop. Grassl.-Forrajes Trop.
                Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) (Cali, Valle, Colombia )
                2346-3775
                August 2017
                : 5
                : 2
                : 66-76
                Affiliations
                [1] Ciudad Victoria orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas orgdiv1Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Mexico
                [2] Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Quito orgnameUniversidad Tecnológica Equinoccial orgdiv1Investigación y Transferencia de Tecnología Ecuador
                Article
                S2346-37752017000200066
                10.17138/tgft(5)66-76
                08729b5b-f1f7-44ab-9e41-e6171af334d6

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 11
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