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      Body Appreciation in Light of Psychological, Health- and Weight-Related Variables Among Female Adolescents

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      * , a , , a , b
      Europe's Journal of Psychology
      PsychOpen
      body image, body appreciation, body weight concerns, self-perceived health, female adolescents

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          Abstract

          Recent research has begun to focus on positive body image and how this can be supported in adolescence. Body appreciation is a key element of positive body image, and has been associated with self-reported health status, weight-related concern, family factors and psychological variables such as self-esteem. In this study we explored these associations among Hungarian adolescent females. Female high school students from two major towns in Csongrád county, Hungary (N = 454; age range from 14 to 20; M = 16.3 years, SD = 1.2) completed questionnaires assessing body appreciation, self-esteem, optimism, life satisfaction and health- and weight-related variables. Analyses revealed that body appreciation was most strongly related to self-esteem, as well as being positively associated with life satisfaction, self-perceived health, being in control of diet, and engagement in sport. Conversely, binge drinking, engaging in slimming behaviors and having eating disorders in the family were negatively associated with body appreciation. These findings provide some indications of factors that might be targetted in health education programs aiming to promote positive body image and to develop resilience against body dissatisfaction in this demographic group. Such programs should also include information of nutrition and media literacy.

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          Most cited references32

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          The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

          This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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            Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults

            Summary Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Funding Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.
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              The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

              Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EJOP
                Eur J Psychol
                Europe's Journal of Psychology
                Eur. J. Psychol.
                PsychOpen
                1841-0413
                27 November 2020
                2020
                : 16
                : 4
                : 676-687
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Szeged , Szeged, Hungary
                [b ]School of Psychology, Deakin University , Burwood, Victoria, Australia
                [3]Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Szeged, 6722 Szeged, 5 Szentharomsag str., Hungary. Tel./fax: +36 62 420-530, fuzne.piko.bettina@ 123456med.u-szeged.hu
                Article
                ejop.v16i4.2183
                10.5964/ejop.v16i4.2183
                7909497
                33680205
                087369cf-7ccf-481f-acdf-ae98d1f49ec0
                Copyright @ 2020

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 19 September 2019
                : 26 March 2020
                Categories
                Research Reports

                Psychology
                body image,body appreciation,body weight concerns,self-perceived health,female adolescents

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