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      Slowing deforestation in Indonesia follows declining oil palm expansion and lower oil prices

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          Abstract

          Much concern about tropical deforestation focuses on oil palm plantations, but their impacts remain poorly quantified. Using nation-wide interpretation of satellite imagery, and sample-based error calibration, we estimated the impact of large-scale (industrial) and smallholder oil palm plantations on natural old-growth (“primary”) forests from 2001 to 2019 in Indonesia, the world’s largest palm oil producer. Over nineteen years, the area mapped under oil palm doubled, reaching 16.24 Mha in 2019 (64% industrial; 36% smallholder), more than the official estimates of 14.72 Mha. The forest area declined by 11% (9.79 Mha), including 32% (3.09 Mha) ultimately converted into oil palm, and 29% (2.85 Mha) cleared and converted in the same year. Industrial plantations replaced more forest than detected smallholder plantings (2.13 Mha vs 0.72 Mha). New plantations peaked in 2009 and 2012 and declined thereafter. Expansion of industrial plantations and forest loss were correlated with palm oil prices. A price decline of 1% was associated with a 1.08% decrease in new industrial plantations and with a 0.68% decrease of forest loss. Deforestation fell below pre-2004 levels in 2017–2019 providing an opportunity to focus on sustainable management. As the price of palm oil has doubled since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective regulation is key to minimising future forest conversion.

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          Most cited references54

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          Re-epithelialization and immune cell behaviour in an ex vivo human skin model

          A large body of literature is available on wound healing in humans. Nonetheless, a standardized ex vivo wound model without disruption of the dermal compartment has not been put forward with compelling justification. Here, we present a novel wound model based on application of negative pressure and its effects for epidermal regeneration and immune cell behaviour. Importantly, the basement membrane remained intact after blister roof removal and keratinocytes were absent in the wounded area. Upon six days of culture, the wound was covered with one to three-cell thick K14+Ki67+ keratinocyte layers, indicating that proliferation and migration were involved in wound closure. After eight to twelve days, a multi-layered epidermis was formed expressing epidermal differentiation markers (K10, filaggrin, DSG-1, CDSN). Investigations about immune cell-specific manners revealed more T cells in the blister roof epidermis compared to normal epidermis. We identified several cell populations in blister roof epidermis and suction blister fluid that are absent in normal epidermis which correlated with their decrease in the dermis, indicating a dermal efflux upon negative pressure. Together, our model recapitulates the main features of epithelial wound regeneration, and can be applied for testing wound healing therapies and investigating underlying mechanisms.
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            A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales

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              Occurrence of the potent mutagens 2- nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone in fine airborne particles

              Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are known due to their mutagenic activity. Among them, 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) are considered as two of the most potent mutagens found in atmospheric particles. In the present study 2-NBA, 3-NBA and selected PAHs and Nitro-PAHs were determined in fine particle samples (PM 2.5) collected in a bus station and an outdoor site. The fuel used by buses was a diesel-biodiesel (96:4) blend and light-duty vehicles run with any ethanol-to-gasoline proportion. The concentrations of 2-NBA and 3-NBA were, on average, under 14.8 µg g−1 and 4.39 µg g−1, respectively. In order to access the main sources and formation routes of these compounds, we performed ternary correlations and multivariate statistical analyses. The main sources for the studied compounds in the bus station were diesel/biodiesel exhaust followed by floor resuspension. In the coastal site, vehicular emission, photochemical formation and wood combustion were the main sources for 2-NBA and 3-NBA as well as the other PACs. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) were calculated for both places, which presented low values, showing low cancer risk incidence although the ILCR values for the bus station were around 2.5 times higher than the ILCR from the coastal site.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Data curationRole: Validation
                Role: Data curation
                Role: Resources
                Role: Validation
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                29 March 2022
                2022
                : 17
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] TheTreeMap, Martel, France
                [2 ] CIRAD Forests and Societies, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France
                [3 ] Auriga Nusantara, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
                [4 ] CREAF, Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola de Vallès), Catalonia, Spain
                [5 ] School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
                [6 ] Borneo Futures, Spg 88, Kg Kiulap, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
                [7 ] Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom
                [8 ] Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management (INA), Norwegian University of Life Science (NMBU), Ås, Norway
                [9 ] Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
                Chinese Academy of Forestry, CHINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-21-26888
                10.1371/journal.pone.0266178
                8963565
                35349594
                08745b04-b012-4418-ada3-a6aec48b2941
                © 2022 Gaveau et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: WWF-US
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Global Environment Facility (GEF)
                Award Recipient :
                This work was funded by the WWF-US and Global Environment Facility (GEF) under the Good Growth Partnership, and in collaboration with the Trase Initiative. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Oil Palm
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Terrestrial Environments
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Environmental Impacts
                Deforestation
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agronomy
                Plant Products
                Vegetable Oils
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Plant Products
                Vegetable Oils
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Trees
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Asia
                Indonesia
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Oceania
                Indonesia
                Engineering and Technology
                Remote Sensing
                Radar
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agronomy
                Horticulture
                Planting
                Custom metadata
                Data are available publlicly for interactive viewing at: https://nusantara-atlas.org/.

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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