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      First records and three new species of the family Symphytognathidae (Arachnida, Araneae) from Thailand, and the circumscription of the genus Crassignatha Wunderlich, 1995

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          Abstract

          The family Symphytognathidae is reported from Thailand for the first time. Three new species: Anapistula choojaiae sp. nov., Crassignatha seeliam sp. nov., and Crassignatha seedam sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Distribution is expanded and additional morphological data are reported for Patu shiluensis Lin & Li, 2009. Specimens were collected in Thailand between July and August 2018. The newly described species were found in the north mountainous region of Chiang Mai, and Patu shiluensis was collected in the coastal region of Phuket. DNA sequences are provided for all the species here studied. The relations of these symphytognathid species were tested using previously published phylogenetic analyses on micro orb-weavers. Also, we used micro CT analysis to build 3D models of the male genitalia and somatic characters of two species of Crassignatha Wunderlich, 1995. The molecular phylogeny and 3D models were used to discuss the taxonomy and circumscription of the currently valid symphytognathid genera, with focus on Crassignatha and Patu Marples, 1951. Based on this, three new combinations are suggested: Crassignatha bicorniventris (Lin & Li, 2009), comb. nov., Crassignatha quadriventris (Lin & Li, 2009), comb. nov., and Crassignatha spinathoraxi (Lin & Li, 2009), comb. nov. A new record of Crassignatha danaugirangensis Miller et al. 2014 is reported from Brunei.

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          Most cited references 54

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

            The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

              MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                26 January 2021
                : 1012
                : 21-53
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Understanding Evolution group, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwinweg 2, 2333CR Leiden, the Netherlands Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden Netherlands
                [2 ] Institute for Biology Leiden (IBL), Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333BE Leiden, the Netherlands Leiden University Leiden Netherlands
                [3 ] Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Rangsit, Pathum Thani, 12121 Thailand Thammasat University Pathum Thani Thailand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Francisco Andres Rivera-Quiroz ( andres.riveraquiroz@ 123456naturalis.nl )

                Academic editor: D. Dimitrov

                Article
                57047
                10.3897/zookeys.1012.57047
                7854560
                Francisco Andres Rivera-Quiroz, Booppa Petcharad, Jeremy A. Miller

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt), Mexico. Funding for the first author.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Arachnida
                Araneae
                Chelicerata
                Symphytognathidae
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Asia

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