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      Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension

      Clinical Autonomic Research
      Springer Nature

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          Orthostatic hypotension in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. CHS Collaborative Research Group.

          The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension and its associations with demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and symptomatology, prevalent cardiovascular disease, and selected clinical measurements in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a multicenter, observational, longitudinal study enrolling 5,201 men and women aged 65 years and older at initial examination. Blood pressure measurements were obtained with the subjects in a supine position and after they had been standing for 3 minutes. The prevalence of asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension, defined as 20 mm Hg or greater decrease in systolic or 10 mm Hg or greater decrease in diastolic blood pressure, was 16.2%. This prevalence increased to 18.2% when the definition also included those in whom the procedure was aborted due to dizziness upon standing. The prevalence was higher at successive ages. Orthostatic hypotension was associated significantly with difficulty walking (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 1.46), frequent falls (odds ratio, 1.52; confidence interval, 1.04, 2.22), and histories of myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.24; confidence interval, 1.02, 1.50) and transient ischemic attacks (odds ratio, 1.68; confidence interval, 1.12, 2.51). History of stroke, angina pectoris, and diabetes mellitus were not associated significantly with orthostatic hypotension. In addition, orthostatic hypotension was associated with isolated systolic hypertension (odds ratio, 1.35; confidence interval, 1.09, 1.68), major electrocardiographic abnormalities (odds ratio, 1.21; confidence interval, 1.03, 1.42), and the presence of carotid artery stenosis based on ultrasonography (odds ratio, 1.67; confidence interval, 1.23, 2.26). Orthostatic hypotension was negatively associated with weight. We conclude that orthostatic hypotension is common in the elderly and increases with advancing age. It is associated with cardiovascular disease, particularly those manifestations measured objectively, such as carotid stenosis. It is associated also with general neurological symptoms, but this link may not be causal. Differences in prevalence of and associations with orthostatic hypotension in the present study compared with others are largely attributed to differences in population characteristics and methodology.
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            Autonomic symptoms and diabetic neuropathy: a population-based study.

            The prevalence of autonomic symptoms and deficits in certain systems is known, but a comprehensive autonomic symptom profile in diabetes is not available. We aimed to estimate this using a laboratory evaluation of autonomic function and a validated self-report measure of autonomic symptoms in patients and matched control subjects from the population-based Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study. Participants included 231 patients with diabetes (type 1, n=83; type 2, n=148) and 245 healthy age-matched control subjects. We assessed symptoms using a validated self-report instrument (Autonomic Symptom Profile) and evaluated the severity and distribution of autonomic deficits (cardiovagal, sudomotor, adrenergic) with the objective, laboratory-based Composite Autonomic Severity Score (CASS). Autonomic symptoms were present more commonly in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes, with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, secretomotor, urinary control, diarrhea, and sleep disturbance and pupillomotor, vasomotor, and erectile dysfunction significantly increased over healthy control subjects in type 2 diabetic patients. The prevalence of autonomic impairment was 54% in type 1 and 73% in type 2 diabetic patients. Severity of autonomic failure was mild overall (mean CASS 2.3; maximum 10), with orthostatic hypotension occurring in 8.4 and 7.4% of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients had a CASS > or =5, indicating moderate to severe generalized autonomic failure. The correlation of symptoms with autonomic deficits (CASS) was better in type 1 than type 2 diabetic subjects and was weak overall. These findings indicate that autonomic symptoms and deficits are common in diabetes, but mild in severity, and that the correlation between symptom scores and deficits is overall weak in mild diabetic neuropathy, emphasizing the need to separately evaluate autonomic symptoms.
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              Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease.

              To investigate the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension and the nature of the postural events related to a fall in blood pressure in patients with Parkinson's disease. Blood pressure was measured first in a supine position after a rest of at least 15 minutes and every minute during 10 minutes of an active standing up procedure. Orthostatic hypotension was considered as present when a fall of at least 20 mm Hg of systolic blood pressure was recorded. Postural events which occurred during the standing test were identified from a questionnaire and self reporting. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the relation between orthostatic hypotension and disease characteristics (duration, severity) and the use of antiparkinsonian drugs. Ninety one consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease (48 women, 43 men, mean age 66 (SD 9) years) participated to the study. A fall of at least 20 mm Hg of systolic blood pressure was found in 58.2% of the patients. Orthostatic hypotension was asymptomatic in 38.5% and associated with postural events in 19.8% of the patients. Symptomatic (but not asymptomatic) orthostatic hypotension was related to duration and severity of the disease and with the use of higher daily levodopa and bromocriptine doses. The analysis of the relation between the postural symptoms (and the need for standing test abortion) with the fall in systolic blood pressure allowed the identification of six clinical criteria specific of orthostatic hypotension. A direct relation between the postural changes in systolic blood pressure and the number of clinical events in this clinical scale was found. The frequency of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease is high and it is possible to establish a clinical rating scale which could be used to assess the effects of drugs employed in the management of orthostatic hypotension.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1007/s10286-007-1001-3
                18368301

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