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      Evaluating Drought Responses of Surface Ozone Precursor Proxies: Variations With Land Cover Type, Precipitation, and Temperature

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          Abstract

          Prior work suggests drought exacerbates US air quality by increasing surface ozone concentrations. We analyze 2005–2015 tropospheric column concentrations of two trace gases that serve as proxies for surface ozone precursors retrieved from the OMI/Aura satellite: Nitrogen dioxide (ΩNO 2; NO x proxy) and formaldehyde (ΩHCHO; VOC proxy). We find 3.5% and 7.7% summer drought enhancements (classified by SPEI) for ΩNO 2 and ΩHCHO, respectively, corroborating signals previously extracted from ground‐level observations. When we subset by land cover type, the strongest ΩHCHO drought enhancement (10%) occurs in the woody savannas of the Southeast US. By isolating the influences of precipitation and temperature, we infer that enhanced biogenic VOC emissions in this region increase ΩHCHO independently with both high temperature and low precipitation during drought. The strongest ΩNO 2 drought enhancement (6.0%) occurs over Midwest US croplands and grasslands, which we infer to reflect the sensitivity of soil NO x emissions to temperature.

          Key Points

          • Satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO 2 and HCHO show drought enhancements of 3.5% and 7.7%, respectively, during Eastern US summers

          • Low precipitation and high temperatures both independently drive HCHO drought enhancement (10%) in Southeast US woody savannas

          • High temperatures drive NO 2 drought enhancement (6.0%) in Midwest US croplands and grasslands

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          Most cited references69

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          The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

          Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.
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            A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index

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              Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models

              Aiguo Dai (2013)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jgn2113@columbia.edu
                amfiore@ldeo.columbia.edu
                Journal
                Geophys Res Lett
                Geophys Res Lett
                10.1002/(ISSN)1944-8007
                GRL
                Geophysical Research Letters
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0094-8276
                1944-8007
                01 April 2021
                16 April 2021
                : 48
                : 7 ( doiID: 10.1002/grl.v48.7 )
                : e2020GL091520
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia College Columbia University New York NY USA
                [ 2 ] Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University Palisades NY USA
                [ 3 ] Department of Chemistry University of California Berkeley Berkeley NY USA
                [ 4 ] Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences University of Houston Houston TX USA
                [ 5 ] NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) New York NY USA
                [ 6 ] SciSpace LLC Bethesda MD USA
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence to:

                J. G. Naimark and A. M. Fiore,

                jgn2113@ 123456columbia.edu ;

                amfiore@ 123456ldeo.columbia.edu

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0422-8964
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0221-2122
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6895-8464
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1649-6974
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1747-415X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1878-1397
                Article
                GRL62152 2020GL091520
                10.1029/2020GL091520
                9285578
                089b2dd9-521e-4b82-a4ab-1d4f072b766b
                © 2021. The Authors.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                : 02 February 2021
                : 04 November 2020
                : 05 March 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Pages: 11, Words: 7429
                Funding
                Funded by: NASA HAQAST
                Award ID: NNX16AQ20 G
                Funded by: G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation (G Unger Vetlesen Foundation) , doi 10.13039/100001372;
                Funded by: NASA NESSF
                Award ID: 80NSSC18K1399
                Funded by: NASA ACCMAP
                Award ID: 80NSSC19K0986
                Categories
                Atmospheric Composition and Structure
                Biosphere/Atmosphere Interactions
                Constituent Sources and Sinks
                Pollution: Urban and Regional
                Troposphere: Composition and Chemistry
                Atmospheric Composition and Structure
                Aerosols and Particles
                Evolution of the Atmosphere
                Biogeosciences
                Biosphere/Atmosphere Interactions
                Pollution: Urban, Regional and Global
                Urban Systems
                Global Change
                Atmosphere
                Hydrology
                Drought
                Hydrology
                Debris Flow and Landslides
                Floods
                Oceanography: General
                Marine Pollution
                Natural Hazards
                Hydrological
                Megacities and Urban Environment
                Oceanography: Biological and Chemical
                Aerosols
                Paleoceanography
                Aerosols
                Tectonophysics
                Evolution of the Earth
                Research Letter
                Research Letter
                Atmospheric Science
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                16 April 2021
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.1.7 mode:remove_FC converted:15.07.2022

                drought,ozone,pollution,precursor,satellite,troposphere
                drought, ozone, pollution, precursor, satellite, troposphere

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