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      Interaction of oestrogen receptor with the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase.

      Nature

      Animals, Binding Sites, Cattle, Cells, Cultured, Endothelium, Vascular, metabolism, Estrogens, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Nitric Oxide, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Protein Binding, Protein Isoforms, Receptors, Estrogen, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Signal Transduction

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          Abstract

          Oestrogen produces diverse biological effects through binding to the oestrogen receptor (ER). The ER is a steroid hormone nuclear receptor, which, when bound to oestrogen, modulates the transcriptional activity of target genes. Controversy exists, however, concerning whether ER has a role outside the nucleus, particularly in mediating the cardiovascular protective effects of oestrogen. Here we show that the ER isoform, ER alpha, binds in a ligand-dependent manner to the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K). Stimulation with oestrogen increases ER alpha-associated PI(3)K activity, leading to the activation of protein kinase B/Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Recruitment and activation of PI(3)K by ligand-bound ER alpha are independent of gene transcription, do not involve phosphotyrosine adapter molecules or src-homology domains of p85alpha, and extend to other steroid hormone receptors. Mice treated with oestrogen show increased eNOS activity and decreased vascular leukocyte accumulation after ischaemia and reperfusion injury. This vascular protective effect of oestrogen was abolished in the presence of PI(3)K or eNOS inhibitors. Our findings define a physiologically important non-nuclear oestrogen-signalling pathway involving the direct interaction of ER alpha with PI(3)K.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B.

          Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is implicated in the regulation of several physiological processes, including the control of glycogen and protein synthesis by insulin, modulation of the transcription factors AP-1 and CREB, the specification of cell fate in Drosophila and dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus embryos. GSK3 is inhibited by serine phosphorylation in response to insulin or growth factors and in vitro by either MAP kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-1 (also known as p90rsk) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k). Here we show, however, that agents which prevent the activation of both MAPKAP kinase-1 and p70S6k by insulin in vivo do not block the phosphorylation and inhibition of GSK3. Another insulin-stimulated protein kinase inactivates GSK3 under these conditions, and we demonstrate that it is the product of the proto-oncogene protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt/RAC). Like the inhibition of GSK3 (refs 10, 14), the activation of PKB is prevented by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase.
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            Expression of a constitutively active Akt Ser/Thr kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulates glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 translocation.

            Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that requires a functional phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to be stimulated by insulin and other growth factors. When directed to membranes by the addition of a src myristoylation sequence, Akt becomes constitutively active. In the present studies, the constitutively active Akt and a nonmyristoylated control mutant were expressed in 3T3-L1 cells that can be induced to differentiate into adipocytes. The constitutively active Akt induced glucose uptake into adipocytes in the absence of insulin by stimulating translocation of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membrane. The constitutively active Akt also increased the synthesis of the ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter 1. The increased glucose influx in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes directed lipid but not glycogen synthesis. These results indicate that Akt can regulate glucose uptake and metabolism.
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              Human oestrogen receptor cDNA: sequence, expression and homology to v-erb-A.

              We have cloned and sequenced the complete complementary DNA of the oestrogen receptor (ER) present in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The expression of the ER cDNA in HeLa cells produces a protein that has the same relative molecular mass and binds oestradiol with the same affinity as the MCF-7 ER. There is extensive homology between the ER and the erb-A protein of the oncogenic avian erythroblastosis virus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                11029009
                2670482
                10.1038/35035131

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