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      Extended Abstracts

      Cartilage

      SAGE Publications

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          Abstract

          The soccer athlete has a greater incidence of overuse and acute knee injuries and as a consequence is at most risk for chondropenia and osteoarthritis. Chondropenia conceptually defines the complex nature of the multivariable processes over time including acute and chronic injury, modulators and the aging process. The role of the Sports Medicine team is to prevent injury, restore the joint and ultimately return the athlete to sport while preventing Osteoarthritis. The clinical consequences of full thickness Articular Cartilage defects are pain, swelling, mechanical symptoms athletic and functional disability and osteoarthitis. In the soccer athlete it is articular cartilage that confers the highest levels of performance. It is the fact that any partial or full thickness loss results in loss of day to day resilience and a spectrum of soreness, stiffness, pain and swelling and most importantly. These injuries may be career- ending In this group of high demand participants any increase in activity and loading beyond the articular cartilage threshold for injury, results in a clinical overuse response with the potential negative adaptive consequences of chondropenia and an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. Lesions to articular cartilage are common acutely but are associated with ACL injuries and long-term chondropenia and Osteoarthitis. The challenge of ACL injury reduction, articular cartilage repair and regeneration and osteoarthitis prevention in the soccer athlete continues to be significant despite significant recent advances. The purpose of this lecture is to present the current concepts with respect to the Athlete's Articular Cartilage the histological, biochemical and clinical implications and contemporary treatments from a historical and an evolutionary prospective as applied during or after their competitive years.

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          Most cited references 426

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          Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine.

          Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from bone marrow or marrow aspirates and because they are culture-dish adherent, they can be expanded in culture while maintaining their multipotency. The MSCs have been used in preclinical models for tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, tendon, fat, and other connective tissues. These tissue-engineered materials show considerable promise for use in rebuilding damaged or diseased mesenchymal tissues. Unanticipated is the realization that the MSCs secrete a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. These molecules are immunosuppressive, especially for T-cells and, thus, allogeneic MSCs can be considered for therapeutic use. In this context, the secreted bioactive molecules provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured adult tissues to limit the area of damage and to mount a self-regulated regenerative response. This regenerative microenvironment is referred to as trophic activity and, therefore, MSCs appear to be valuable mediators for tissue repair and regeneration. The natural titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury can be augmented by allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream. Indeed, human clinical trials are now under way to use allogeneic MSCs for treatment of myocardial infarcts, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's Disease, cartilage and meniscus repair, stroke, and spinal cord injury. This review summarizes the biological basis for the in vivo functioning of MSCs through development and aging.
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              Application of chitosan-based polysaccharide biomaterials in cartilage tissue engineering: a review.

              Once damaged, articular cartilage has very little capacity for spontaneous healing because of the avascular nature of the tissue. Although many repair techniques have been proposed over the past four decades, none has sucessfully regenerated long-lasting hyaline cartilage tissue to replace damaged cartilage. Tissue engineering approaches, such as transplantation of isolated chondrocytes, have recently demonstrated tremendous clinical potential for regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage tissue and treatment of chondral lesions. As such a new approach emerges, new important questions arise. One of such questions is: what kinds of biomaterials can be used with chondrocytes to tissue-engineer articular cartilage? The success of chondrocyte transplantation and/or the quality of neocartilage formation strongly depend on the specific cell-carrier material. The present article reviews some of those biomaterials, which have been suggested to promote chondrogenesis and to have potentials for tissue engineering of articular cartilage. A new biomaterial, a chitosan-based polysaccharide hydrogel, is also introduced and discussed in terms of the biocompatibility with chondrocytes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cartilage
                Cartilage
                CAR
                spcar
                Cartilage
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                1947-6035
                1947-6043
                August 2009
                August 2009
                : 1
                : 1 Suppl , Abstracts from the 8th World Congress of the International Cartilage Repair Society, May 23–26, 2009, Miami, Florida, USA
                : 2-63
                Affiliations
                Santa Monica/US
                Lund/SE
                Laval/CA
                University of Kent/UK
                [1 ] Cambridge/US
                [2 ] Bologna/IT
                [3 ] Santa Monica, CA/US
                [4 ] University Of Kent/UK
                Monza (mi)/IT
                Leuven/BE
                London/UK
                Kungsbacka/SE
                Bologna/IT
                [1 ] Budapest/HU
                [2 ] Debrecen/HU
                Unlu; Istanbul/TR
                Toronto/CA
                La Jolla, CA/US
                [1 ] San Francisco/US
                [2 ] San Francisco, CA/US
                [1 ] Helsinki/FI
                [2 ] Jyväskylä/FI
                [3 ] Kuopio/FI
                New York/US
                [1 ] Munich/DE
                [2 ] Cambridge/US
                Cardiff/UK
                Quebecr/CA
                Arnhem/NL
                Boston, MA/US
                [1 ] Milan/IT
                [2 ] Basel/CH
                Vienna/AT
                Ljubljana/SI
                Ghent/BE
                London/UK
                Suita/JP
                Tsukuba, Ibaraki/JP
                [1 ] Osaka/JP
                [2 ] Tokyo/JP
                [3 ] Calgary/CA
                Hiroshima/JP
                Utrecht/NL
                Zurich/CHSections
                Bologna/IT
                [1 ] Montreal/CA
                [2 ] Tsukuba, Ibaraki/JP
                [3 ] Laval/CA
                [4 ] Quebec/CA
                [5 ] Oklahoma City, OK/US
                [6 ] Winnipeg/CA
                Santiago/CL
                São Paulo/BR
                Hermosillo/MX
                Alessandria/IT
                [1 ] Pittsburgh/US
                [2 ] Pittsburg, PA/US
                Chicago, IL/US
                Utrecht/NL
                Milano/IT
                Vienna/AT
                [1 ] Vienna/AT
                [2 ] Berne/CH
                Kungsbacka/SE
                Odense/DK
                Kuopio/FI
                [1 ] Cleveland/US
                [2 ] Cleveland, OH/US
                [3 ] Madrid/ES
                [1 ] Milan/IT
                [2 ] Boston, MA/US
                Article
                10.1177_194760350900101S01
                10.1177/194760350900101S01
                4513498
                © 2009 SAGE Publications
                Categories
                Extended Abstracts

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