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      Hectopsylla pulex (Haller, 1880) (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) infestation on Eptesicus furinalis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Central Andes of Colombia

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          Abstract

          Abstract Bat ectoparasites have a complex natural history narrowly tied to their hosts at ecological, behavioral, and evolutionary scales. As flying and social organisms, bats represent a potential mechanism of dispersal, a source of feeding, and a roost for ectoparasite reproduction. The chiggerflea Hectopsylla pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) is widely distributed across the Neotropics. Females of this ectoparasite have been found in their neosomal form on bats of the family Molossidae, Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae. Here we present the record of infestation of chiggerfleas on the Argentine bat, Eptesicus furinalis (Vespertilionidae) in Colombia, representing the first record of the flea on this species, and providing novel genetic information of this poorly known flea species.

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0.

            PhyML is a phylogeny software based on the maximum-likelihood principle. Early PhyML versions used a fast algorithm performing nearest neighbor interchanges to improve a reasonable starting tree topology. Since the original publication (Guindon S., Gascuel O. 2003. A simple, fast and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 52:696-704), PhyML has been widely used (>2500 citations in ISI Web of Science) because of its simplicity and a fair compromise between accuracy and speed. In the meantime, research around PhyML has continued, and this article describes the new algorithms and methods implemented in the program. First, we introduce a new algorithm to search the tree space with user-defined intensity using subtree pruning and regrafting topological moves. The parsimony criterion is used here to filter out the least promising topology modifications with respect to the likelihood function. The analysis of a large collection of real nucleotide and amino acid data sets of various sizes demonstrates the good performance of this method. Second, we describe a new test to assess the support of the data for internal branches of a phylogeny. This approach extends the recently proposed approximate likelihood-ratio test and relies on a nonparametric, Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like procedure. A detailed analysis of real alignments sheds light on the links between this new approach and the more classical nonparametric bootstrap method. Overall, our tests show that the last version (3.0) of PhyML is fast, accurate, stable, and ready to use. A Web server and binary files are available from http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/.
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              Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap

              Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and the Shimodaira–Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio test have been introduced to speed up the bootstrap. Here, we suggest an ultrafast bootstrap approximation approach (UFBoot) to compute the support of phylogenetic groups in maximum likelihood (ML) based trees. To achieve this, we combine the resampling estimated log-likelihood method with a simple but effective collection scheme of candidate trees. We also propose a stopping rule that assesses the convergence of branch support values to automatically determine when to stop collecting candidate trees. UFBoot achieves a median speed up of 3.1 (range: 0.66–33.3) to 10.2 (range: 1.32–41.4) compared with RAxML RBS for real DNA and amino acid alignments, respectively. Moreover, our extensive simulations show that UFBoot is robust against moderate model violations and the support values obtained appear to be relatively unbiased compared with the conservative standard bootstrap. This provides a more direct interpretation of the bootstrap support. We offer an efficient and easy-to-use software (available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree) to perform the UFBoot analysis with ML tree inference.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                paz
                Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia
                Pap. Avulsos Zool.
                Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0031-1049
                1807-0205
                2021
                : 61
                Affiliations
                [6] Manizales Caldas orgnameUniversidad de Caldas orgdiv1Centro de Museos orgdiv2Museo de Historia Natural Colombia
                [2] Santa Rosa de Cabal Risaralda orgnameCorporación Universitaria Santa Rosa de Cabal orgdiv1Grupo de Investigación en Biología de la Conservación y Biotecnología Colombia
                [1] Bogotá D.C. orgnameUniversidad de los Andes orgdiv1Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas orgdiv2Laboratorio de Ecología de Bosques Tropicales y Primatología Colombia
                [5] Manizales Caldas orgnameUniversidad de Caldas orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales orgdiv2Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas Colombia
                [3] Manizales Caldas orgnameUniversidad de Manizales orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias e Ingeniería orgdiv2Programa de Maestría en Tecnologías de la Información Geográfica Colombia
                [4] Manizales Caldas orgnameUniversidad de Caldas orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales orgdiv2Grupo de Investigación en Genética, Biodiversidad y Manejo de Ecosistemas Colombia
                Article
                S0031-10492021000100238 S0031-1049(21)06100000238
                10.11606/1807-0205/2021.61.38
                08aa109c-5990-4d17-88c9-cec576f72568

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 0
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                Andes,Ectoparasite,Insectivorous bats,Peri-urban area,South America

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