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Plant-Derived Bioactives in Oral Mucosal Lesions: A Key Emphasis to Curcumin, Lycopene, Chamomile, Aloe vera, Green Tea and Coffee Properties

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      Oral mucosal lesions have many etiologies, including viral or bacterial infections, local trauma or irritation, systemic disorders, and even excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption. Folk knowledge on medicinal plants and phytochemicals in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions has gained special attention among the scientific community. Thus, this review aims to provide a brief overview on the traditional knowledge of plants in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions. This review was carried out consulting reports between 2008 and 2018 of PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. The chosen keywords were plant, phytochemical, oral mucosa, leukoplakia, oral lichen planus and oral health. A special emphasis was given to certain plants (e.g., chamomile, Aloe vera, green tea, and coffea) and plant-derived bioactives (e.g., curcumin, lycopene) with anti-oral mucosal lesion activity. Finally, preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical studies examining both the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants and their derived phytochemicals were also carefully addressed.

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      The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme.

      Chronic diseases and injuries are the leading health problems in all but a few parts of the world. The rapidly changing disease patterns throughout the world are closely linked to changing lifestyles, which include diets rich in sugars, widespread use of tobacco, and increased consumption of alcohol. In addition to socio-environmental determinants, oral disease is highly related to these lifestyle factors, which are risks to most chronic diseases as well as protective factors such as appropriate exposure to fluoride and good oral hygiene. Oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their high prevalence and incidence in all regions of the world, and as for all diseases, the greatest burden of oral diseases is on disadvantaged and socially marginalized populations. The severe impact in terms of pain and suffering, impairment of function and effect on quality of life must also be considered. Traditional treatment of oral diseases is extremely costly in several industrialized countries, and not feasible in most low-income and middle-income countries. The WHO Global Strategy for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, added to the common risk factor approach is a new strategy for managing prevention and control of oral diseases. The WHO Oral Health Programme has also strengthened its work for improved oral health globally through links with other technical programmes within the Department for Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. The current oral health situation and development trends at global level are described and WHO strategies and approaches for better oral health in the 21st century are outlined.
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        The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family has been considered the central mediator of the inflammatory process and a key participant in innate and adaptive immune responses. Coincident with the molecular cloning of NF-κB/RelA and identification of its kinship to the v-Rel oncogene, it was anticipated that NF-κB itself would be involved in cancer development. Oncogenic activating mutations in NF-κB genes are rare and have been identified only in some lymphoid malignancies, while most NF-κB activating mutations in lymphoid malignancies occur in upstream signaling components that feed into NF-κB. NF-κB activation is also prevalent in carcinomas, in which NF-κB activation is mainly driven by inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment. Importantly, however, in all malignancies, NF-κB acts in a cell type-specific manner: activating survival genes within cancer cells and inflammation-promoting genes in components of the tumor microenvironment. Yet, the complex biological functions of NF-κB have made its therapeutic targeting a challenge. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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          Curcumin inhibits proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of different cancers through interaction with multiple cell signaling proteins.

          Because most cancers are caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different genes, agents that target multiple gene products are needed for prevention and treatment of cancer. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent in turmeric, has been shown to interact with a wide variety of proteins and modify their expression and activity. These include inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, transcription factors, and gene products linked with cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Curcumin has been found to inhibit the proliferation of various tumor cells in culture, prevents carcinogen-induced cancers in rodents, and inhibits the growth of human tumors in xenotransplant or orthotransplant animal models either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents or radiation. Several phase I and phase II clinical trials indicate that curcumin is quite safe and may exhibit therapeutic efficacy. These aspects of curcumin are discussed further in detail in this review.

            Author and article information

            [1]Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran;
            [2]Instituto Murciano de InvestigaciónBiosanitaria (IMIB-Arrixaca-UMU), Clínica Odontológica Universitaria Hospital Morales Meseguer Adv. Marques de los velez s/n, 30008 Murcia, Spain;
            [3]University of Murciaand, Clínica Odontológica Universitaria Hospital Morales Meseguer, Adv. Marques de los velez s/n, 30008 Murcia, Spain;
            [4]Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania;
            [5]Department of Medical Parasitology, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61663-335, Iran
            [6]Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion 4070386, Chile; (K.R.-A.); (K.F.)
            [7]Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion 4070386, Chile;
            [8]Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA;
            [9]Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
            [10]Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
            [11]LEPABE, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal;
            [12]Food Safety Research Center (Salt), Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 35198-99951, Iran
            Author notes
            [*]Correspondence: (M.S.-R.); (M.M.); (N.M.); (J.S.-R.); Tel.: +98-54-322-51-790 (M.S.-R.); +56-41-266-1671 (M.M.); +351-22-5512100 (N.M.); +98-21-88200104 (J.S.-R.)
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            17 March 2019
            March 2019
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            © 2019 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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