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      Paramphistomum daubneyi: characteristics of infection in three lymnaeid species Translated title: Paramphistomum daubneyi : caractéristiques de l’infestation chez trois espèces de limnées

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          Abstract

          Experimental infections of two South American lymnaeids ( Lymnaea neotropica and L. viatrix var. ventricosa) with Paramphistomum daubneyi were carried out to determine if these snail species could sustain larval development of this digenean and, if so, to specify their potential for cercarial production. A French population of Galba truncatula infected and raised according to the same protocol served as controls. In both experiments, prevalence of P. daubneyi infections in snails did not significantly differ from each other. In snail groups evaluated for cercarial shedding (first experiment), a significantly lower number of shed cercariae was noted for L. neotropica, while those from G. truncatula and L. v. ventricosa did not differ significantly from each other. Dissection of infected snails at day 65 post-exposure at 20 °C (second experiment) found significantly lower burdens of P. daubneyi rediae and cercariae in the bodies of L. neotropica than in those of G. truncatula and L. v. ventricosa. Compared to total cercarial production observed in dissected snails, the percentage of cercariae which exited from snails was 75.6% for G. truncatula, 21.6% for L. neotropica, and 91.4% for L. v. ventricosa. This last species seems to be a good candidate for metacercarial production of P. daubneyi.

          Translated abstract

          Des infestations expérimentales de deux limnées sud-américaines ( Lymnaea neotropica et L. viatrix var. ventricosa) avec Paramphistomum daubneyi ont été réalisées pour déterminer si ces espèces peuvent assurer le développement larvaire de ce Digène et, dans l’affirmative, pour préciser leur potentiel dans la production cercarienne. Les témoins sont constitués par une population française de Galba truncatula infestée et élevée selon le même protocole. Dans les deux expériences, les prévalences de l’infestation par P. daubneyi chez les mollusques sont proches les unes des autres. Chez les groupes suivis pour les émissions cercariennes (première expérience), le nombre de cercaires émises est significativement plus faible chez L. neotropica, tandis que les chiffres notés chez G. truncatula et L. v. ventricosa ne présentent pas de différence significative. Si les mollusques infestés sont disséqués au 65ème jour post-exposition à 20 °C (seconde expérience), les charges rédienne et cercarienne trouvées dans le corps des L. neotropica sont significativement plus faibles que celles notées chez G. truncatula et L. v. ventricosa. Par rapport à la production cercarienne totale chez les mollusques disséqués, le pourcentage de cercaires qui sont émises est de 75,6 % chez G. truncatula, 21,6 % chez L. neotropica et de 91,4 % chez L. v. ventricosa. Cette dernière espèce semble être un bon candidat pour la production métacercarienne de P. daubneyi.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Fascioliasis transmission by Lymnaea neotropica confirmed by nuclear rDNA and mtDNA sequencing in Argentina.

          Fascioliasis is widespread in livestock in Argentina. Among activities included in a long-term initiative to ascertain which are the fascioliasis areas of most concern, studies were performed in a recreational farm, including liver fluke infection in different domestic animal species, classification of the lymnaeid vector and verification of natural transmission of fascioliasis by identification of the intramolluscan trematode larval stages found in naturally infected snails. The high prevalences in the domestic animals appeared related to only one lymnaeid species present. Lymnaeid and trematode classification was verified by means of nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA marker sequencing. Complete sequences of 18S rRNA gene and rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and a fragment of the mtDNA cox1 gene demonstrate that the Argentinian lymnaeid belongs to the species Lymnaea neotropica. Redial larval stages found in a L. neotropica specimen were ascribed to Fasciola hepatica after analysis of the complete ITS-1 sequence. The finding of L. neotropica is the first of this lymnaeid species not only in Argentina but also in Southern Cone countries. The total absence of nucleotide differences between the sequences of specimens from Argentina and the specimens from the Peruvian type locality at the levels of rDNA 18S, ITS-2 and ITS-1, and the only one mutation at the mtDNA cox1 gene suggest a very recent spread. The ecological characteristics of this lymnaeid, living in small, superficial water collections frequented by livestock, suggest that it may be carried from one place to another by remaining in dried mud stuck to the feet of transported animals. The presence of L. neotropica adds pronounced complexity to the transmission and epidemiology of fascioliasis in Argentina, due to the great difficulties in distinguishing, by traditional malacological methods, between the three similar lymnaeid species of the controversial Galba/Fossaria group present in this country: L. viatrix, Galba truncatula and L. neotropica. It also poses a problem with regard to the use, for lymnaeid vector species discrimination, of several molecular techniques which do not show sufficient accuracy, as those relying on the 18S rRNA gene or parts of it, because both L. neotropica and L. viatrix present identical 18S sequence.
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            Some observations on the epidemiology of fascioliasis in relation to the timing of molluscicide applications in the control of the disease.

             C Ollerenshaw (1971)
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              Prevalence of mixed trematode infections in an abattoir receiving cattle from northern Portugal and north-west Spain.

              Between February 2007 and January 2009, a total of 776 slaughtered animals were examined for the presence of Trematoda in the liver, gall bladder, oesophagus and stomach (rumen and reticulum). Data collected were analysed by the age and breed of the animals. The percentage of cattle from which Trematoda were found was 38 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 35 to 41 per cent); 28 per cent (95 per cent CI 25 to 31 per cent) had Fasciola hepatica, 12 per cent (95 per cent CI 10 to 14 per cent) Calicophoron daubneyi and 6 per cent (95 per cent CI 4 to 8 per cent) Dicrocoelium species. A significantly high prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis was observed in cattle over 10 years of age. Autochthonous Rubia Gallega cattle had the highest prevalence of fasciolosis and crossbred cattle had the highest prevalence of dicrocoeliosis (P<0.05). Twenty per cent (95 per cent CI 15 to 25 per cent) of the cattle positive for Fasciola also had Calicophoron species; 10 per cent (95 per cent CI 6 to 14 per cent) also had small liver flukes (Dicrocoelium species).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                November 2012
                15 November 2012
                : 19
                : 4 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/04 )
                : 445-449
                Affiliations
                [1 ] CEDIVE, Fac. Cs. Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata Alvear 803 (7130) Chascomús, Buenos Aires Argentina
                [2 ] PADESCA Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University Mentouri Constantine 25100 El Khroub Algeria
                [3 ] INSERM U 1094, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy 87025 Limoges France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Gilles Dreyfuss. Tel./Fax: 33 (0)5 55 43 58 63. E-mail: gilles.dreyfuss@ 123456unilim.fr
                Article
                parasite2012194p445 10.1051/parasite/2012194445
                10.1051/parasite/2012194445
                3671451
                23193532
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Research Note

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