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Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood — current knowledge and open issues

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      The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

      Subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) is defined as serum free T(4) and free T(3) levels within their respective reference ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels. SCTD is being diagnosed more frequently in clinical practice in young and middle-aged people as well as in the elderly. However, the clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is much debated. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism can have repercussions on the cardiovascular system and bone, as well as on other organs and systems. However, the treatment and management of SCTD and population screening are controversial despite the potential risk of progression to overt disease, and there is no consensus on the thyroid hormone and thyrotropin cutoff values at which treatment should be contemplated. Opinions differ regarding tissue effects, symptoms, signs, and cardiovascular risk. Here, we critically review the data on the prevalence and progression of SCTD, its tissue effects, and its prognostic implications. We also examine the mechanisms underlying tissue alterations in SCTD and the effects of replacement therapy on progression and tissue parameters. Lastly, we address the issue of the need to treat slight thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in relation to the patient's age.
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        The Colorado Thyroid Disease Prevalence Study

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          A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a histological classification of atherosclerosis. A report from the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association.

          This report is the continuation of two earlier reports that defined human arterial intima and precursors of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in humans. This report describes the characteristic components and pathogenic mechanisms of the various advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These, with the earlier definitions of precursor lesions, led to the histological classification of human atherosclerotic lesions found in the second part of this report. The Committee on Vascular Lesions also attempted to correlate the appearance of lesions noted in clinical imaging studies with histological lesion types and corresponding clinical syndromes. In the histological classification, lesions are designated by Roman numerals, which indicate the usual sequence of lesion progression. The initial (type 1) lesion contains enough atherogenic lipoprotein to elicit an increase in macrophages and formation of scattered macrophage foam cells. As in subsequent lesion types, the changes are more marked in locations of arteries with adaptive intimal thickening. (Adaptive thickenings, which are present at constant locations in everyone from birth, do not obstruct the lumen and represent adaptations to local mechanical forces). Type II lesions consist primarily of layers of macrophage foam cells and lipid-laden smooth muscle cells and include lesions grossly designated as fatty streaks. Type III is the intermediate stage between type II and type IV (atheroma, a lesion that is potentially symptom-producing). In addition to the lipid-laden cells of type II, type III lesions contain scattered collections of extracellular lipid droplets and particles that disrupt the coherence of some intimal smooth muscle cells. This extracellular lipid is the immediate precursor of the larger, confluent, and more disruptive core of extracellular lipid that characterizes type IV lesions. Beginning around the fourth decade of life, lesions that usually have a lipid core may also contain thick layers of fibrous connective tissue (type V lesion) and/or fissure, hematoma, and thrombus (type VI lesion). Some type V lesions are largely calcified (type Vb), and some consist mainly of fibrous connective tissue and little or no accumulated lipid or calcium (type Vc).
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Nature Reviews Endocrinology
            Nat Rev Endocrinol
            Springer Nature
            1759-5029
            1759-5037
            July 1 2016
            July 1 2016
            : 12
            : 12
            : 734-746
            10.1038/nrendo.2016.100
            © 2016

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