16
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Trends and Challenges in Tumor Anti-Angiogenic Therapies

      review-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Excessive abnormal angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in tumor progression and is a hallmark of solid tumors. This process is driven by an imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors dominated by the tissue hypoxia-triggered overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF-mediated signaling has quickly become one of the most promising anti-angiogenic therapeutic targets in oncology. Nevertheless, the clinical efficacy of this approach is severely limited in certain tumor types or shows only transient efficacy in patients. Acquired or intrinsic therapy resistance associated with anti-VEGF monotherapeutic approaches indicates the necessity of a paradigm change when targeting neoangiogenesis in solid tumors. In this context, the elaboration of the conceptual framework of “vessel normalization” might be a promising approach to increase the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies and the survival rates of patients. Indeed, the promotion of vessel maturation instead of regressing tumors by vaso-obliteration could result in reduced tumor hypoxia and improved drug delivery. The implementation of such anti-angiogenic strategies, however, faces several pitfalls due to the potential involvement of multiple pro-angiogenic factors and modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune system. Thus, effective treatments bypassing relapses associated with anti-VEGF monotherapies or breaking the intrinsic therapy resistance of solid tumors might use combination therapies or agents with a multimodal mode of action. This review enumerates some of the current approaches and possible future directions of treating solid tumors by targeting neovascularization.

          Related collections

          Most cited references191

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          PD-L1 is a novel direct target of HIF-1α, and its blockade under hypoxia enhanced MDSC-mediated T cell activation

          Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors (Semenza, 2011). Hypoxic zones in tumors attract immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs; Corzo et al., 2010), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs; Doedens et al., 2010; Imtiyaz et al., 2010), and regulatory T cells (T reg cells; Clambey et al., 2012). MDSCs are a heterogeneous group of relatively immature myeloid cells and several studies have described mechanisms of MDSC-mediated immune suppression (Gabrilovich et al., 2012). A large body of preclinical and clinical data indicates that antibody blockade of immune checkpoints can significantly enhance antitumor immunity (Pardoll, 2012; West et al., 2013). Recently, antibody-mediated blockade of preprogrammed death 1 (PD-1; Topalian et al., 2012) and its ligand, PD-L1 (Brahmer et al., 2012), was shown to result in durable tumor regression and prolonged stabilization of disease in patients with advanced cancers. PD-1, a cell surface glycoprotein with a structure similar to cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), belongs to the B7 family of co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory molecules and plays a key part in immune regulation (Greenwald et al., 2005). PD-1 has two known ligands, PD-L1 (B7-H1) and PD-L2 (B7-DC). Although hypoxia has been shown to regulate the function and differentiation of MDSCs (Corzo et al., 2010), several major questions remain unresolved. The influence of hypoxia on the regulation of immune checkpoint receptors (PD-1 and CTLA-4) and their respective ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2, CD80, and CD86) on MDSCs remains largely obscure. Furthermore, the potential contribution of these immune checkpoint receptors and their respective ligands on MDSC function under hypoxia is still unknown. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) selectively up-regulated PD-L1 on MDSCs, but not other B7 family members, by binding directly to the HRE in the PD-L1 proximal promoter. Blockade of PD-L1 under hypoxia abrogated MDSC-mediated T cell suppression by modulating MDSCs cytokine production. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Differential expression of PD-L1 on tumor-infiltrating MDSCs versus splenic MDSCs and selective up-regulation of PD-L1 in splenic MDSCs under hypoxic stress We first compared the level of expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 between splenic MDSCs and tumor-infiltrating MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice. We found that the percentage of PD-L1+ cells was significantly higher on tumor-infiltrating MDSCs as compared with splenic MDSC in B16-F10, LLC (Fig. 1 A), CT26, and 4T1 (Fig. 1 B) tumor models. No significant difference was found in the percentage of PD-L2+ cells in splenic MDSCs as compared with tumor-infiltrating MDSCs in four tumor models tested (Fig. 1 C). We did not observe any significant difference in the expression levels of other members of the B7 family such as CD80, CD86, PD-1, and CTLA-4 on MDSCs from spleen and tumor (unpublished data). Youn et al. (2008) previously observed no significant differences in the percentage of PD-L1+ or CD80+ cells within the splenic MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice and immature myeloid cells from naive tumor-free mice. However, by comparing the expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors between splenic and tumor-infiltrating MDSCs, we showed that there is a differential expression of PD-L1 on tumor-infiltrating MDSCs. Figure 1. Tumor-infiltrating MDSCs differentially express PD-L1 as compared with splenic MDSCs, and hypoxia selectively up-regulates PD-L1 on splenic MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice. Surface expression level of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on Gr1+ CD11b+ cells (MDSCs) from (B16-F10 and LLC; A; CT26 and 4T1; B) in spleens (black dotted line histogram) and tumor (black line histogram) as compared with isotype control (gray-shaded histogram) was analyzed by flow cytometry. (C) Statistically significant differences (indicated by asterisks) between tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and splenic MDSCs are shown (*, P 20 fold for HRE-4), comparable to their binding to an established HRE in VEGF, LDHA, and Glut1 genes. To determine whether this HIF-1α site (HRE-4) was a transcriptionally active HRE, MSC-1 cells were co-transfected with pGL4-hRluc/SV40 vector and pGL3 EV, pGL3 HRE-4, or pGL3 HRE-4 MUT vectors (Fig. 3 M) and grown under normoxia or hypoxia. After 48 h, firefly and renilla luciferase activities were measured. As shown in Fig. 3 N, hypoxia significantly increased the luciferase activity of HRE-4 reporter by more than threefold as compared with normoxia. More interestingly, the luciferase activity of HRE-4 MUT was significantly decreased (>50%) as compared with HRE-4 under hypoxia (Fig. 3 N). The results presented in Figs. 3 (H–N) demonstrate that PD-L1 is a direct HIF-1α target gene in MSC-1 cells. Thus, we provide evidence here that HIF-1α is a major regulator of PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression, and that HIF-1α regulates the expression of PD-L1 by binding directly to the HRE-4 in the PD-L1 proximal promoter. Blocking PD-L1 decreases MDSC-mediated T cell suppression under hypoxia by down-regulating MDSC IL-6 and IL-10 To directly test the functional consequences of hypoxia-induced up-regulation of PD-L1 in MDSC-mediated T cell suppression, the expression of PD-L1 was blocked on ex vivo MDSCs by using anti–PD-L1 monoclonal antibody. Hypoxia increased the ability of MDSCs to suppress both specific and nonspecific stimuli-mediated T cell proliferation (Fig. 4, A and B). Interestingly, blockade of PD-L1 under hypoxia significantly abrogated the suppressive activity of MDSCs in response to both nonspecific stimuli (anti-CD3/CD28 antibody; Fig. 4 A) and specific stimuli (TRP-2(180–88) peptide; Fig. 4 B). Under hypoxia, MDSCs acquired the ability to inhibit T cell function (Fig. 4, C and D) by decreasing the percentage of IFN-γ+ CD8+ and CD4+ T cells; whereas the percentage of IFN-γ+ CD8+ (Fig. 4 C) and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells (Fig. 4 D) significantly increased after PD-L1 blockade under hypoxic conditions. Thus, the immune suppressive function of MDSCs enhanced under hypoxia was abrogated after blocking PD-L1, and hypoxic up-regulation of PD-L1 on MDSCs is involved in mediating the suppressive action of MDSCs, at least in part, as we were not able to completely restore T cell proliferation and function after PD-L1 blockade on MDSCs under hypoxia. Figure 4. Blockade of PD-L1 under hypoxia down-regulates MDSC IL-6 and IL-10 and enhances T cell proliferation and function. MDSCs isolated from spleens of B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice were pretreated for 30 min on ice with 5 µg/ml control antibody (IgG) or antibody against PD-L1 (PDL1 Block) and co-cultured with splenocytes under normoxia and hypoxia for 72 h. (A and B) Effect of MDSC on proliferation of splenocytes stimulated with (A) anti-CD3/CD28 coated beads or (B) TRP-2(180–88) peptide under the indicated conditions. Cell proliferation was measured in triplicates by [3H]thymidine incorporation and expressed as counts per minute (CPM). (C and D) MDSCs were cultured with splenocytes from B16-F10 mice stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28. Intracellular IFN-γ production was evaluated by flow cytometry by gating on (C) CD3+CD8+ IFN-γ+ and (D) CD3+CD4+ IFN-γ+ populations. Statistically significant differences (indicated by asterisks) are shown (**, P 95% as evaluated by FACS analysis. MDSC functional assays. For evaluation of T cell proliferation, splenocytes from B16-F10 mice were plated into U-bottom 96-well plates along with MDSCs at different ratios (50,000 MDSC:200,000 splenocytes/well). Plates were stimulated with either anti-CD3/CD28 beads (Miltenyi Biotec) or TRP-2 180–88 peptide for 72 h at 37°C. Co-cultures were pulsed with thymidine (1 µCi/well; Promega) for 16–18 h before harvesting, and [3H]thymidine uptake was counted using Packard’s TopCount NXT liquid scintillation counter and expressed as counts per minute (CPM). For assessment of T cell functions, MDSCs co-cultured with splenocytes from B16-F10 mice were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 beads. After 72 h, intracellular IFN-γ production was evaluated by flow cytometry by gating on CD3+CD8+ IFN-γ+ and CD3+CD4+ IFN-γ+ populations. MDSCs cytokine production (ELISA). MDSCs isolated from spleens of B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice were pretreated for 30 min on ice with 5 μg/ml control antibody (IgG) or Anti-Mouse PD-L1 (B7-H1) Functional Grade Purified antibody 5 µg/ml (clone MIH5; eBioscience; PDL1 Block) and cultured under normoxia and hypoxia for 72 h. Supernatants were collected and the secretion of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12p70 (eBioscience) was determined by ELISA. ChIP assay. ChIP was performed with lysates prepared from MSC-1 by using SimpleChIP Enzymatic Chromatin IP kit (Cell Signaling Technology). SYBR Green RT-qPCR was performed using the primers detailed in Table S1. Arginase enzymatic activity and NO (nitric oxide) production. Arginase activity was measured in MDSC cell lysates, and for NO production, culture supernatants were mixed with Greiss reagent and nitrite concentrations were determined as described earlier (Youn et al., 2008). Luciferase reporter assay. A 653-bp section corresponding to mouse PD-L1 promoter containing HRE4 sequence was inserted into the NheI–XhoI sites of pGL3-Basic vector (Promega). Mutation of HRE4 was performed by site-directed mutagenesis and verified by sequencing. A 56-bp mouse PD-L1 gene sequence was inserted into the Bgl II site of pGL3-Promoter (Promega). MSC-1 cells were co-transfected with 0.2 µg of pGL4-hRluc/SV40 vector (which contains renilla luciferase sequences downstream of the SV40 promoter) and 1 µg of pGL3 empty vector, pGL3 HRE-4, or pGL3 HRE-4 MUT vectors in 6-well plates with Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) in OPTIMEM (Invitrogen) medium and grown under normoxia or hypoxia. After 48 h, firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were measured using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter assay (Promega) and the ratio of firefly/Renilla luciferase was determined. Statistics. Data were analyzed with GraphPad Prism. Student’s t test was used for single comparisons. Online supplemental material. Table S1 shows genomic oligonucleotide primers used for amplification of immunoprecipitated DNA samples from ChIP assays. Online supplemental material is available at http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/jem.20131916/DC1. Supplementary Material Supplemental Material
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Sunitinib malate for the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

            The multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has shown activity against pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in preclinical models and phase 1 and 2 trials. We conducted a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of sunitinib in patients with advanced, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. All patients had Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined disease progression documented within 12 months before baseline. A total of 171 patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive best supportive care with either sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg per day or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival; secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, and safety. The study was discontinued early, after the independent data and safety monitoring committee observed more serious adverse events and deaths in the placebo group as well as a difference in progression-free survival favoring sunitinib. Median progression-free survival was 11.4 months in the sunitinib group as compared with 5.5 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.66; P<0.001). A Cox proportional-hazards analysis of progression-free survival according to baseline characteristics favored sunitinib in all subgroups studied. The objective response rate was 9.3% in the sunitinib group versus 0% in the placebo group. At the data cutoff point, 9 deaths were reported in the sunitinib group (10%) versus 21 deaths in the placebo group (25%) (hazard ratio for death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.89; P=0.02). The most frequent adverse events in the sunitinib group were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, asthenia, and fatigue. Continuous daily administration of sunitinib at a dose of 37.5 mg improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and the objective response rate as compared with placebo among patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00428597.).
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Vascular-specific growth factors and blood vessel formation.

              A recent explosion in newly discovered vascular growth factors has coincided with exploitation of powerful new genetic approaches for studying vascular development. An emerging rule is that all of these factors must be used in perfect harmony to form functional vessels. These new findings also demand re-evaluation of therapeutic efforts aimed at regulating blood vessel growth in ischaemia, cancer and other pathological settings.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cells
                Cells
                cells
                Cells
                MDPI
                2073-4409
                18 September 2019
                September 2019
                : 8
                : 9
                : 1102
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Anatomy, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden School of Medicine, 01307 Dresden, Germany; mhhs@ 123456mailbox.tu-dresden.de
                [2 ]German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
                [3 ]German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 61920 Heidelberg, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jozsef.jaszai@ 123456tu-dresden.de ; Tel.: +49-351-458-6085; Fax: +49-351-458-6303
                Article
                cells-08-01102
                10.3390/cells8091102
                6770676
                31540455
                08dd2986-a3a8-4f84-afb0-9ba591bbfa5a
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 12 July 2019
                : 14 September 2019
                Categories
                Review

                anti-angiogenesis therapy of cancer,sprouting angiogenesis,stromal microenviroment,evasive resistance,vessel normalization,anti-vegf therapy,bevacizumab,aflibercept,small-molecule multikinase-inhibitors,angiogenesis inhibitors

                Comments

                Comment on this article