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      Psychological inflexibility and mental health symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain: A longitudinal study

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          Abstract

          Spain, one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, underwent a strict lockdown between March and May 2020. This study examines longitudinally the evolution of both psychological inflexibility and mental health symptoms in a sample of college students from the beginning and throughout the end of the mandated lockdown period. We present the results from 197 participants who responded to an online survey at least at two of three data-collection waves scheduled at the beginning (N = 226), halfway (N = 172), and end (N = 188) of the lockdown. The analyses revealed that psychological inflexibility and symptomatology increased over time, and that inflexibility at the beginning of the lockdown indirectly predicted self-reported symptoms at the end of the lockdown via autoregressive parallel paths that also connected cross-sectionally to reveal that changes in inflexibility were predictive of changes in mental health. These results present a dynamic and robust relationship between psychological inflexibility and mental health symptoms throughout a relatively long and presumably stressful period of time.

          Highlights

          • Mental health symptoms substantively increased over the two-month long mandated lockdown in Spain.

          • Psychological inflexibility increased marginally during the same period.

          • Psychological inflexibility indirectly predicts mental health symptoms at 2-month follow up.

          • Changes in psychological inflexibility over time predict corresponding changes in mental health over the same period.

          • The pattern of results suggests psychological inflexibility is both malleable but relatively stable.

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          The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence

          Summary The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.
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            Is Open Access

            Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China

            Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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              The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

              This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Contextual Behav Sci
                J Contextual Behav Sci
                Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
                Association for Contextual Behavioral Science. Published by Elsevier Inc.
                2212-1447
                2212-1455
                10 December 2020
                January 2021
                10 December 2020
                : 19
                : 42-49
                Affiliations
                [a ]Psychology Department, University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas S/n, 23071, Jaén, Spain
                [b ]Department of Psychological Science, 358 Dewey Hall, The University of Vermont, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author.
                Article
                S2212-1447(20)30218-0
                10.1016/j.jcbs.2020.12.002
                7834284
                33520642
                08df9ac1-3bb2-4e53-89e9-cb3e3245c0c7
                © 2020 Association for Contextual Behavioral Science. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Original Article

                covid-19,lockdown,psychological inflexibility,psychological flexibility,mental health

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