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      Molecular Mechanisms of Curcumin on Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Dysfunctions: Txnip, ICAM-1, and NOX2 Expressions

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          We aim to investigate the effects of curcumin on preventing diabetes-induced vascular inflammation in association with its actions on Txnip, ICAM-1, and NOX2 enzyme expressions. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (CON), diabetic (DM; streptozotocin (STZ), i.v. 55 mg/kg BW), control-treated with curcumin (CONCUR; 300 mg/kg BW), and diabetes treated with curcumin (DMCUR; 300 mg/kg BW). 12th week after STZ injection, iris blood perfusion, leukocyte adhesion, Txnip, p47phox, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined by using laser Doppler, intravital fluorescent confocal microscopy, Western Blot analysis, and TBAR assay, respectively. The iris blood perfusion of DM and DMCUR was decreased significantly compared to CON and CONCUR ( P < 0.001). Plasma glucose and HbA1c of DM and DMCUR were increased significantly compared to CON and CONCUR ( P < 0.001). Leukocyte adhesion, ICAM-1, p47phox expression, and MDA levels in DM were increased significantly compared to CON, CONCUR, and DMCUR ( P < 0.05). Txnip expression in DM and DMCUR was significantly higher than CON and CONCUR ( P < 0.05). From Pearson's analysis, the correlation between the plasma MDA level and the endothelial functions was significant. It suggested that curcumin could ameliorate diabetic vascular inflammation by decreasing ROS overproduction, reducing leukocyte-endothelium interaction, and inhibiting ICAM-1 and NOX2 expression.

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          Most cited references 49

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          A central role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

          Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of adult vision loss and blindness. Much of the retinal damage that characterizes the disease results from retinal vascular leakage and nonperfusion. Diabetic retinal vascular leakage, capillary nonperfusion, and endothelial cell damage are temporary and spatially associated with retinal leukocyte stasis in early experimental diabetes. Retinal leukostasis increases within days of developing diabetes and correlates with the increased expression of retinal intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD18. Mice deficient in the genes encoding for the leukocyte adhesion molecules CD18 and ICAM-1 were studied in two models of diabetic retinopathy with respect to the long-term development of retinal vascular lesions. CD18-/- and ICAM-1-/- mice demonstrate significantly fewer adherent leukocytes in the retinal vasculature at 11 and 15 months after induction of diabetes with STZ. This condition is associated with fewer damaged endothelial cells and lesser vascular leakage. Galactosemia of up to 24 months causes pericyte and endothelial cell loss and formation of acellular capillaries. These changes are significantly reduced in CD18- and ICAM-1-deficient mice. Basement membrane thickening of the retinal vessels is increased in long-term galactosemic animals independent of the genetic strain. Here we show that chronic, low-grade subclinical inflammation is responsible for many of the signature vascular lesions of diabetic retinopathy. These data highlight the central and causal role of adherent leukocytes in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. They also underscore the potential utility of anti-inflammatory treatment in diabetic retinopathy.
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            Vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 mediates oxidative stress via suppressing the thioredoxin function.

             E Junn,  E. Cho,  Ivana K. Kim (2000)
            As a result of identifying the regulatory proteins of thioredoxin (TRX), a murine homologue for human vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1) was identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen. Cotransfection into 293 cells and precipitation assays confirmed that mouse VDUP1 (mVDUP1) bound to TRX, but it failed to bind to a Cys32 and Cys35 mutant TRX, suggesting the redox-active site is critical for binding. mVDUP1 was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and located in the cytoplasm. Biochemical analysis showed that mVDUP1 inhibited the insulin-reducing activity of TRX. When cells were treated with various stress stimuli such as H2O2 and heat shock, mVDUP1 was significantly induced. TRX is known to interact with other proteins such as proliferation-associated gene and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. Coexpression of mVDUP1 interfered with the interaction between TRX and proliferation-associated gene or TRX and ASK-1, suggesting its roles in cell proliferation and oxidative stress. To investigate the roles of mVDUP1 in oxidative stress, mVDUP1 was overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells. When cells were exposed to stress, cell proliferation was declined with elevated apoptotic cell death compared with control cells. In addition, c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and IL-6 expression were elevated. Taken together, these results demonstrate that mVDUP1 functions as an oxidative stress mediator by inhibiting TRX activity.
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              Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress through inhibition of thioredoxin function by thioredoxin-interacting protein.

              Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular disease and pro-atherosclerotic effects of diabetes mellitus may be mediated by oxidative stress. Several ROS-scavenging systems tightly control cellular redox balance; however, their role in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is unclear. A ubiquitous antioxidative mechanism for regulating cellular redox balance is thioredoxin, a highly conserved thiol reductase that interacts with an endogenous inhibitor, thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip). Here we show that hyperglycemia inhibits thioredoxin ROS-scavenging function through p38 MAPK-mediated induction of Txnip. Overexpression of Txnip increased oxidative stress, while Txnip gene silencing restored thioredoxin activity in hyperglycemia. Diabetic animals exhibited increased vascular expression of Txnip and reduced thioredoxin activity, which normalized with insulin treatment. These results provide evidence for the impairment of a major ROS-scavenging system in hyperglycemia. These studies implicate reduced thioredoxin activity through interaction with Txnip as an important mechanism for vascular oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                26 June 2014
                : 2014
                1Center of Excellence for Microcirculation, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
                2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
                Author notes
                *Suthiluk Patumraj: suthilukp@ 123456yahoo.com

                Academic Editor: George Perry

                Copyright © 2014 Natchaya Wongeakin et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article


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