+1 Recommend
2 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Pacritinib Inhibition of IRAK1 Blocks Aberrant TLR8 Signalling by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1-Derived RNA


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Macrophages promote an early host response to infection by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-6. One of the mechanisms through which cells sense pathogenic microorganisms is through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) 1, IRAK2, IRAK3, and IRAK4 are integral to TLR and IL-1 receptor signalling pathways. Recent studies suggest a role for aberrant TLR8 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation during both COVID-19 and HIV-1 infection. Here, we show that pacritinib inhibits the TLR8-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine response elicited by GU-rich single-stranded RNA derived from SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. Using genetic and pharmacologic inhibition, we demonstrate that pacritinib inhibits IRAK1 phosphorylation and ubiquitination which then inhibits the recruitment of the TAK1 complex to IRAK1, thus inhibiting the activation of downstream signalling and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

          Related collections

          Most cited references77

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis.

            Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Imbalanced Host Response to SARS-CoV-2 Drives Development of COVID-19

              Summary Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.

                Author and article information

                J Innate Immun
                J Innate Immun
                Journal of Innate Immunity
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                Jan-Dec 2023
                4 July 2022
                4 July 2022
                : 15
                : 1
                : 96-106
                [1] aDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
                [2] bRady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, USA
                Author notes

                Pratima Rawat's current address: Microbiologics Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

                Copyright © 2022 by The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

                : 2 March 2022
                : 27 May 2022
                : 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 76, Pages: 11
                This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (R01MH128021 to Grant R. Campbell), by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the NIH (R01NS104015 to Stephen A. Spector), and by the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network (impaactnetwork.org). Overall support for the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Network is provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the NIH under award numbers UM1AI068632 (IMPAACT LOC), UM1AI068616 (IMPAACT SDMC), and UM1AI106716 (IMPAACT LC), with co-funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
                Research Article

                sars-cov-2, hiv-1, tlr8, pacritinib, irak1


                Comment on this article