Introduction: Clinical and experimental data suggest that exposure to intrauterine infection is associated not only to lung maturation and reduced risk of respiratory distress syndrome, but also with delayed alveolarization and increased risk of broncopulmonary dysplasia. e aimed to evaluate the association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung disease in preterm newborns. Methods: A retrospective study of 452 neonates less than 34 weeks gestational age, delivered at three tertiary medical centers in the north of Portugal, between 2001 and 2002. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung damage (respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) was evaluated through the calculation of odds ratio. Results: one hundred and twenty five newborns from mothers with histological chorioamnionitis and 327 without the condition. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and respiratory distress syndrome was OR 1.5 (95% CI 0.94 - 2.31). The association between chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia was OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.16 -6.03). The association between histological chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia when adjusted for gestational age and small for gestational age revealed no statistical significance: OR 1.2 (95% CI 0.51 - 2.95) for any placental finding and OR 1.4 (95% CI 0.46 - 4.09) for funisitis and/ or vasculitis. Conclusion: In this study we could not confirm a decrease of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates with histological chorioamnionitis nor an association to increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as described in some studies.