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      Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Function by Fingolimod Initiation and Predictors for Fingolimod Induced Bradycardia in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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          Objective: It is well-known that initiation of fingolimod induces a transient decrease of heart rate. However, the underlying cardiac autonomic regulation is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the changes of autonomic activity caused by the first dose of fingolimod using a long-term multiple trigonometric spectral analysis for the first time. In addition, we sought to use the continuous Holter ECG recording to find predictors for fingolimod induced bradycardia.

          Methods: Seventy-eight patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were included. As a part of the START study (NCT01585298), continuous electrocardiogram was recorded before fingolimod initiation, and until no <6 h post medication. Time domain and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were computed hourly to assess cardiac autonomic regulation. A long-term multiple trigonometric regressive spectral (MTRS) analysis was applied on successive 1-h-length electrocardiogram recordings. Decision tree analysis was used to find predictors for bradycardia following fingolimod initiation.

          Results: Most of the HRV parameters representing parasympathetic activities began to increase since the second hour after fingolimod administration. These changes of autonomic regulations were in accordance with the decline of heart rate. Baseline heart rate was highly correlated with nadir heart rate, and was the only significant predicting factor for fingolimod induced bradycardia among various demographic, clinical and cardiovascular variables in the decision tree analysis.

          Conclusions: The first dose application of fingolimod enhances the cardiac parasympathetic activity during the first 6 h post medication, which might be the underlying autonomic mechanism of reduced heart rate. Baseline heart rate is a powerful predictor for bradycardia caused by fingolimod.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Heart rate variability as an index of regulated emotional responding.

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            Impact of Reduced Heart Rate Variability on Risk for Cardiac Events: The Framingham Heart Study

            Although heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in a variety of pathological conditions, the association of reduced HRV with risk for new cardiac events has not been studied in a large community-based population. The first 2 hours of ambulatory ECG recordings obtained on subjects of the Framingham Heart Study who were free of clinically apparent coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure were reprocessed to assess HRV. Five frequency-domain measures and three time-domain measures were obtained. The associations between HRV measures and the incidence of new cardiac events (angina pectroris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or congestive heart failure) were assessed with proportional hazards regression analyses. There were 2501 eligible subjects with a mean age of 53 years. During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, cardiac events occurred in 58 subjects. After adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and other relevant risk factors, all HRV measures except the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power were significantly associated with risk for a cardiac event (P = .0016 to .0496). A one-standard deviation decrement in the standard deviation of total normal RR intervals (natural log transformed) was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.47 for new cardiac events (95% confidence interval of 1.16 to 1.86). The estimation of HRV by ambulatory monitoring offers prognostic information beyond that provided by the evaluation of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.
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              Heart rate variability: measurement and clinical utility.

              Electrocardiographic RR intervals fluctuate cyclically, modulated by ventilation, baroreflexes, and other genetic and environmental factors that are mediated through the autonomic nervous system. Short term electrocardiographic recordings (5 to 15 minutes), made under controlled conditions, e.g., lying supine or standing or tilted upright can elucidate physiologic, pharmacologic, or pathologic changes in autonomic nervous system function. Long-term, usually 24-hour recordings, can be used to assess autonomic nervous responses during normal daily activities in health, disease, and in response to therapeutic interventions, e.g., exercise or drugs. RR interval variability is useful for assessing risk of cardiovascular death or arrhythmic events, especially when combined with other tests, e.g., left ventricular ejection fraction or ventricular arrhythmias.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                12 October 2017
                : 11
                1Autonomic and Neuroendocrinological Lab, Center of Clinical Neuroscience, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology , Dresden, Germany
                2Department of Neurology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology , Beijing, China
                3MS Center, Center of Clinical Neuroscience, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology , Dresden, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Tijana Bojić, University of Belgrade, Serbia

                Reviewed by: Michal Javorka, Comenius University, Slovakia; Max-Josef Hilz, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany

                *Correspondence: Tjalf Ziemssen tjalf.ziemssen@ 123456uniklinikum-dresden.de

                This article was submitted to Autonomic Neuroscience, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Copyright © 2017 Li, Konofalska, Akgün, Reimann, Rüdiger, Haase and Ziemssen.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 9, Words: 7043
                Funded by: Novartis Pharma 10.13039/100008792
                Original Research


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