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      Risk of empyema in patients with COPD

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Pneumonia is one of the most common infectious diseases in patients with COPD. The risk of empyema in COPD is controversial, and its incidence has not been reported. The aim of our study was to determine the risk of empyema in COPD patients and to assess its risk factors.

          Patients and methods

          We used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan to conduct an observational cohort study. This study analyzed patients who were diagnosed with COPD between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2009. The earliest date of COPD diagnosis was designated the index date. Patients who were younger than 40 years or had empyema before the index date were excluded.

          Results

          We analyzed 72,085 COPD patients in our study. The incidence of empyema was higher in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group (15.80 vs 4.34 per 10,000 person-years). The adjusted hazard ratio for empyema was 3.25 (95% CI =2.73–3.87) in patients with COPD compared with patients without COPD. COPD patients with only comorbidity of stroke, cancer, and chronic renal disease had adjusted hazard ratios of 1.88, 4.84, and 3.90, respectively.

          Conclusion

          The likelihood of developing empyema is higher in patients with COPD than in those without COPD. Some comorbidities, such as stroke, cancer, and chronic renal disease, are associated with an elevated risk for empyema in COPD patients.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Pulmonary infectious mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease.

          Infection is the second-leading cause of death among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This is due in part to advanced age, comorbid conditions, and immune dysfunction observed in uremic states. Although one may hypothesize that pulmonary infectious mortality is higher among patients with ESRD compared with the general population (GP), no such data are currently available. We compared annual pulmonary infectious mortality rates among patients with ESRD to those in the GP. The data were abstracted from the United States Renal Data System and the National Center for Health Statistics, respectively, and were stratified by age, gender, race, and presence or absence of diabetes mellitus (DM). In the GP, primary and multiple cause-of-death analyses were performed to account for potential limitations of the data sources. Overall, pulmonary infectious mortality rate was 14-fold to 16-fold higher in dialysis patients and approximately twofold higher in renal transplant recipients compared with the GP. After stratification for age, differences between groups decreased but retained their magnitude. Patients with ESRD treated with dialysis have higher pulmonary infectious mortality rates compared with the GP, even after stratification for age, race, and DM. Consequently, this patient population must be considered at high risk for the development of lethal pulmonary infections.
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            Pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus. Pneumonia.

             H Koziel,  M Koziel (1995)
            Diabetes mellitus is often identified as an independent risk factor for developing lower respiratory tract infections. Pulmonary infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterum tuberculosis, mucor, Staphylococcus aureus, and gram-negative bacteria may occur with an increased frequency whereas infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella, and influenza may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The predisposition to lower respiratory tract infections may represent alterations in pulmonary host defenses at several levels. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of pulmonary infections encountered in the diabetic patient, focusing on predisposing defects in pulmonary host defense, highlighting characteristic clinical features, and discussing diagnostic approaches, therapeutic interventions, and prophylaxis in this patient population.
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              Parapneumonic effusions.

              In this study the incidence and course of pleural effusions (parapneumonic effusions) in patients with acute bacterial pneumonia were prospectively evaluated. Bilateral decubitus chest x-ray films were obtained within 72 hours of admission in 203 patients with an acute febrile illness, purulent sputum and an infiltrate evident on the chest film. Ninety of the 203 patients (44 percent) had pleural effusions. Parapneumonic effusions, which required chest tubes for resolution and/or on which the pleural fluid cultures were positive, were classified as complicated parapneumonic effusions. The 10 patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions had clinical characteristics similar to the remainder of the group and could be separated from the 80 with uncomplicated effusions only by pleural fluid analysis. A pleural fluid pH below 7.00 and/or a glucose level below 40 mg/100 ml are indications for immediate tube thoracostomy. In patients with pleural fluid pH between 7.00 and 7.20 or lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) above 1,000 IU/1,000 ml, tube thoracostomy should be considered, but each case should be individualized; serial studies of the pleural fluid are useful in some of these cases. Patients with pleural fluid pH above 7.20 and pleural fluid LDH below 1,000 mg/100 ml rarely have complicated parapneumonic effusions and do not require serial therapeutic thoracenteses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                15 January 2018
                : 13
                : 317-324
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Chiali, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kuang-Ming Liao, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Chiali, Taiwan, Tel +886 6 726 3333 Ext 32003, Email abc8870@ 123456yahoo.com.tw
                Article
                copd-13-317
                10.2147/COPD.S149835
                5774740
                © 2018 Lu and Liao. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, empyema, risk factors

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