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      Elimination of Lipid Peroxide during Hemodialysis

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          Background/Aims: This study is aimed to show the antioxidative effect of hemodialysis (HD) by demonstrating the elimination of toxic lipid peroxides. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from patients on regular maintenance HD before and 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after the start of each HD session. Plasma cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide (CE-OOH), phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH), and eliminators of lipid peroxides (LOOH) such as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) were investigated. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was measured for the evaluation of the pro-oxidative side. Results: CE-OOH and PC-OOH were elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease both on and not on HD, while these values were much higher in HD patients. CE-OOH quickly dropped during the first 30 min of HD, then gradually decreased until 240 min. CE-OOH concentrations were related to those of apoA-I. In contrast, PC-OOH showed an increase 30 min after the start of HD, a change which resembled that of LCAT and was the reverse of the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the antioxidative action through CE-OOH elimination involving apoA-I. The pro- and antioxidative effects of HD on LOOH are not uniform but PC-OOH is mainly influenced prooxidatively.

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          Overproduction of reactive oxygen species in end-stage renal disease patients: a potential component of hemodialysis-associated inflammation.

          During the past decade, hemodialysis (HD)-induced inflammation has been linked to the development of long-term morbidity in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on regular renal replacement therapy. Because interleukins and anaphylatoxins produced during HD sessions are potent activators for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, an example of an enzyme that is responsible for overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), this may constitute a link between leukocyte activation and cell or organ toxicity. Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between oxidant production and antioxidant defense mechanisms, has been documented in ESRD patients using lipid and/or protein oxidative markers. Characterization of HD-induced oxidative stress has included identification of potential activators for NADPH oxidase. Uremia per se could prime phagocyte oxidative burst. HD, far from improving the oxidative status, results in an enhancement of ROS owing to hemoincompatibility of the dialysis system, hemoreactivity of the membrane, and trace amounts of endotoxins in the dialysate. In addition, the HD process is associated with an impairment in antioxidant mechanisms. The resulting oxidative stress has been implicated in long-term complications including anemia, amyloidosis, accelerated atherosclerosis, and malnutrition. Prevention of oxidative stress in HD might focus on improving the hemocompatibility of the dialysis system, supplementation of deficient patients with antioxidants, and modulation of NADPH oxidase by pharmacologic approaches.
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            Effect of hemodialysis on the oxidative stress and antioxidants.

            Oxidative stress plays a role in many disease states. These diseases have an increased incidence in uremia, and particularly in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This suggests an increased exposure to oxidative stress. An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants has been suggested in uremic patients on HD. However, the respective influence of uremia and dialysis procedure has not been evaluated. It is postulated that antioxidant capacity in uremic patients is reduced, yet the mechanism remains unclear. We have determined the levels of lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. We assessed oxidative protein damage by carbonyl content and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in predialysis uremic patients and in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients before and after hemodialysis. Vitamin E and vitamin C levels, reduced glutathione and sulfhydryl content were also studied. We found enhanced oxidative stress in ESRD patients undergoing HD and in predialysis uremic patients. This was mostly due to defective antioxidant enzyme levels. Preventive modalities, including use of biocompatible membranes, ultrapure dialysate, exogenous supplementation of antioxidant vitamins, extracorporeal removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidatively modified substances, would appear highly desirable to reduce complications in the long-term dialysis patients.
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              Oxidation of High Density Lipoproteins


                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                July 2007
                26 June 2007
                : 106
                : 4
                : c162-c168
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Tsukuba Gakuen General Hospital, Tsukuba, bDepartment of Nephrology, Graduate School for Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, cDepartment of Nephrology, Hitachi General Hospital, Hitachi, dDepartment of Nephrology, Namegata District General Hospital, Namegata, eKidney Center, Tsukuba Central Hospital, Ushiku, fCenter for Clinical Medicine and Research, International University of Health and Welfare, Nasu-Shiobara, and gIbaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami, Japan
                104427 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;106:c162–c168
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 31, Pages: 1
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