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      Synergistic effects of MAP2 and MAP1B knockout in neuronal migration, dendritic outgrowth, and microtubule organization

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          Abstract

          MAP1B and MAP2 are major members of neuronal microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). To gain insights into the function of MAP2 in vivo, we generated MAP2-deficient ( map2 −/−) mice. They developed without any apparent abnormalities, which indicates that MAP2 is dispensable in mouse survival. Because previous reports suggest a functional redundancy among MAPs, we next generated mice lacking both MAP2 and MAP1B to test their possible synergistic functions in vivo. Map2 / map1b −/− mice died in their perinatal period. They showed not only fiber tract malformations but also disrupted cortical patterning caused by retarded neuronal migration. In spite of this, their cortical layer maintained an “inside-out” pattern. Detailed observation of primary cultures of hippocampal neurons from map2 −/map1b −/− mice revealed inhibited microtubule bundling and neurite elongation. In these neurons, synergistic effects caused by the loss of MAP2 and MAP1B were more apparent in dendrites than in axons. The spacing of microtubules was reduced significantly in map2 −/map1b −/− mice in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that MAP2 and MAP1B have overlapping functions in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth by organizing microtubules in developing neurons both for axonal and dendritic morphogenesis but more dominantly for dendritic morphogenesis.

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          Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

          The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressures in the turbulent gas (Johansen, Klahr, & Henning 2006), and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005, Johansen, Henning, & Klahr 2006, Johansen & Youdin 2007) driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar discs.
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            The Dicke Quantum Phase Transition with a Superfluid Gas in an Optical Cavity

            A phase transition describes the sudden change of state in a physical system, such as the transition between a fluid and a solid. Quantum gases provide the opportunity to establish a direct link between experiment and generic models which capture the underlying physics. A fundamental concept to describe the collective matter-light interaction is the Dicke model which has been predicted to show an intriguing quantum phase transition. Here we realize the Dicke quantum phase transition in an open system formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity, and observe the emergence of a self-organized supersolid phase. The phase transition is driven by infinitely long-ranged interactions between the condensed atoms. These are induced by two-photon processes involving the cavity mode and a pump field. We show that the phase transition is described by the Dicke Hamiltonian, including counter-rotating coupling terms, and that the supersolid phase is associated with a spontaneously broken spatial symmetry. The boundary of the phase transition is mapped out in quantitative agreement with the Dicke model. The work opens the field of quantum gases with long-ranged interactions, and provides access to novel quantum phases.
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              RADIOAUTOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF CHOLINE INCORPORATION INTO PERIPHERAL NERVE MYELIN

              This radioautographic study was designed to localize the cytological sites involved in the incorporation of a lipid precursor into the myelin and the myelin-related cell of the peripheral nervous system. Both myelinating and fully myelinated cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a 30-min pulse of tritiated choline and either fixed immediately or allowed 6 or 48 hr of chase incubation before fixation. After Epon embedding, light and electron microscopic radioautograms were prepared with Ilford L-4 emulsion. Analysis of the pattern of choline incorporation into myelinating cultures indicated that radioactivity appeared all along the length of the internode, without there being a preferential site of initial incorporation. Light microscopic radioautograms of cultures at varying states of maturity were compared in order to determine the relative degree of myelin labeling. This analysis indicated that the myelin-Schwann cell unit in the fully myelinated cultures incorporated choline as actively as did this unit in the myelinating cultures. Because of technical difficulties, it was not possible to determine the precise localization of the incorporated radioactivity within the compact myelin. These data are related to recent biochemical studies indicating that the mature myelin of the central nervous system does incorporate a significant amount of lipid precursor under the appropriate experimental conditions. These observations support the concept that a significant amount of myelin-related metabolic activity occurs in mature tissue; this activity is considered part of an essential and continuous process of myelin maintenance and repair.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                1 October 2001
                : 155
                : 1
                : 65-76
                Affiliations
                Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
                Author notes

                Address correspondence to Nobutaka Hirokawa, Dept. of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. Tel.: 81-3-5841-3326. Fax: 81-3-5802-8646. E-mail: hirokawa@ 123456m.u-tokyo.ac.jp

                Article
                0106025
                10.1083/jcb.200106025
                2150794
                11581286
                090d4b5d-dcd1-4ca2-b208-7d20801ca6a8
                Copyright © 2001, The Rockefeller University Press
                History
                : 5 June 2001
                : 23 August 2001
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology
                map1b; map2; neuronal migration; dendrite; microtubule
                Cell biology
                map1b; map2; neuronal migration; dendrite; microtubule

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