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      Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men.

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      Psychological Bulletin
      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.

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          Description and Prescription: How Gender Stereotypes Prevent Women's Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder

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            Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Toward Agentic Women

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              Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Bulletin
                Psychological Bulletin
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1455
                0033-2909
                2003
                2003
                : 129
                : 4
                : 569-591
                Article
                10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.569
                12848221
                091a3493-b455-47a5-bba5-4d55486435fa
                © 2003
                History

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