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      Biogeography of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) of Mongolia


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          The bio-geographical composition and spatial distribution patterns of dytiscid assemblages in Mongolia are relatively unexplored. In this study, we compiled a list of 99 dytiscid species belonging to 20 genera and five subfamilies recorded in Mongolia and investigated species richness, spatial distribution and bio-geographical composition of the Mongolian dytiscid fauna. This study encompasses the information of currently recorded species and their geographic localities in Mongolia based on our own data and literature sources. We examined how dytiscid species richness was related to sub-basins of surface water network, as well as to geographical elevations within Mongolia. The majority of the Mongolian dytiscid fauna was associated with the sub-basins belonging to Arctic Ocean (80 species, 80.8%) and Central Asian Inland (60 species, 60.6%) basins. Only a few species of dytiscids belonged to the remaining river basins. Species richness of dytiscids and total area of sub-basins were not correlated, but species composition of dytiscids differed significantly among the sub-basins.

          We observed that most of the species (77 species or 77.8% of total fauna) were recorded in a wide range of elevations and mid-altitudes (1000–2000 m a.s.l.) and showed the greatest diversity of dytiscids. Regarding the bio-geographical composition, species with wide geographical distributions (27.3% of dytiscids), were Palearctic species, while species of Arctic origin (21.2%) together with Boreal elements (16.2%) comprised a large proportion of the dytiscid fauna in Mongolia.

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          What determines a species' geographical range? Thermal biology and latitudinal range size relationships in European diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

          1. The geographical range sizes of individual species vary considerably in extent, although the factors underlying this variation remain poorly understood, and could include a number of ecological and evolutionary processes. A favoured explanation for range size variation is that this result from differences in fundamental niche breadths, suggesting a key role for physiology in determining range size, although to date empirical tests of these ideas remain limited. 2. Here we explore relationships between thermal physiology and biogeography, whilst controlling for possible differences in dispersal ability and phylogenetic relatedness, across 14 ecologically similar congeners which differ in geographical range extent; European diving beetles of the genus Deronectes Sharp (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Absolute upper and lower temperature tolerance and acclimatory abilities are determined for populations of each species, following acclimation in the laboratory. 3. Absolute thermal tolerance range is the best predictor of both species' latitudinal range extent and position, differences in dispersal ability (based on wing size) apparently being less important in this group. In addition, species' northern and southern range limits are related to their tolerance of low and high temperatures respectively. In all cases, absolute temperature tolerances, rather than acclimatory abilities are the best predictors of range parameters, whilst the use of independent contrasts suggested that species' thermal acclimation abilities may also relate to biogeography, although increased acclimatory ability does not appear to be associated with increased range size. 4. Our study is the first to provide empirical support for a relationship between thermal physiology and range size variation in widespread and restricted species, conducted using the same experimental design, within a phylogenetically and ecologically controlled framework.
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            Australian Beetles Volume 1

            This three-volume series represents a comprehensive treatment of the beetles of Australia, a relatively under-studied fauna that includes many unusual and unique lineages found nowhere else on Earth. Volume 1 contains keys to all 117 beetle families found in Australia, and includes over 1100 illustrations of adults, larvae and anatomical structures. This volume is based in part on Lawrence & Britton’s out-of-print Australian Beetles, but is fully updated and expanded. The biology and morphology for all major beetle lineages is described and illustrated, along with anatomical terms which clarify the characters and terminology used in the keys; few other resources for beetle identification include such a detailed morphological background. A chapter on the fossil record is also included, and family sections provide full descriptions of adults and larvae, including the world distribution of each family. The revised identification keys (currently recognised as one of the most valuable keys worldwide) will aid quarantine agents, biologists and students in identifying members of the most species-rich order of animals.
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              Diving beetle (Dytiscidae) assemblages along environmental gradients in an agricultural landscape in southeastern Sweden


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                06 June 2019
                : 853
                : 87-108
                [1 ] Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Peace Avenue 54b, Ulaanbaatar 13330, Mongolia Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences Ulaanbaatar Mongolia
                [2 ] Ecology Group, Department of Biology, National University of Mongolia, Ikh Surguuliin Gudamj 1, Ulaanbaatar 14201, Mongolia National University of Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Mongolia
                [3 ] Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University Philadelphia United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Bazartseren Boldgiv ( boldgiv@ 123456num.edu.mn )

                Academic editor: M. Michat

                Author information
                33908 urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:a9e1e8ec-de8f-5c5f-a14e-f7ccb51e2a30 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BF364383-BC9B-49AE-B6EF-54C8E165E226
                Davaadorj Enkhnasan, Bazartseren Boldgiv

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 17 February 2019
                : 22 April 2019
                Research Article
                Ecology & Environmental sciences

                Animal science & Zoology
                geographical distribution,altitudinal pattern,dytiscid,range,river sub-basin


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