The incidence of HCV antibodies has been evaluated in 123 chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients (Group A; 55 M and 68 F) and in 37 consecutive HD patients (group B) admitted to our hospitals for acute hepatitis. In group A, HCV antibodies were present in 27% of the patients. 20 of 36 (55%) had previously received blood transfusions. 21 patients (58%) were also positive for HBV Ab. In 8 patients, ALT were significantly increased. In group B, the diagnosis of HCV-related acute hepatitis was made in 11 patients. 8 of them had previously received blood transfusions. Seroconversion occurred 2-3 months after onset of the disease.