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      Urinary Excretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1: A Biomarker of Active Tubulointerstitial Damage in Patients with Glomerulopathies

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The urinary concentration of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1) chemokine is increased in several proteinuric and/or inflammatory renal diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the association between uMCP-1 and renal function, proteinuria, glomerular and interstitial macrophage infiltration, and renal fibrosis in patients with primary and secondary glomerulopathies diagnosed by renal biopsy. Methods: Thirty-seven patients aged 32.6 ± 7.7 years were studied. uMCP-1 was determined by ELISA. Renal macrophage expression (CD68 positive cells) is reported as number of macrophages/10<sup>4</sup> µm<sup>2</sup> of the cortical tubulointerstitial (TI) area or of glomerular capillary tuft area. Cortical interstitial fibrosis was quantitated by PicroSirius red staining under polarized light by a computerized manner. Results: The uMCP-1 ratio (pg/ml/urinary creatinine mg/ml) was positively correlated (Spearman coefficient) with proteinuria (r = 0.4629; p < 0.005) and number of macrophages in the cortical TI area (r = 0.64; p = 0.0005), and negatively correlated with creatinine clearance (r = –0.4877; p < 0.001). The uMCP-1 ratio was not significantly correlated with number of macrophages/glomerular capillary tuft area (r = 0.27; p = 0.19) or with percent cortical interstitial fibrosis (r = 0.08; p = 0.62). Conclusions: The uMCP-1 excretion is a biomarker of the inflammatory activity of the TI area, and does not reflect chronic interstitial damage.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections

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            RANTES and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein–1 (MCP-1) Play an Important Role in the Inflammatory Phase of Crescentic Nephritis, but Only MCP-1 Is Involved in Crescent Formation and Interstitial Fibrosis

            The involvement of chemokines in inflammation is well established, but their functional role in disease progression, and particularly in the development of fibrosis, is not yet understood. To investigate the functional role that the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1) and RANTES play in inflammation and the progression to fibrosis during crescentic nephritis we have developed and characterized a murine model for this syndrome. Significant increases in T-lymphocytes and macrophages were observed within glomeruli and interstitium, paralleled by an induction of mRNA expression of MCP-1 and RANTES, early after disease initiation. Blocking the function of MCP-1 or RANTES resulted in significant decreases in proteinuria as well as in numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, indicating that both MCP-1 and RANTES (regulated upon activation in normal T cells expressed and secreted) play an important role in the inflammatory phase of crescentic nephritis. In addition, neutralization of MCP-1 resulted in a dramatic decrease in both glomerular crescent formation and deposition of type I collagen. These results highlight a novel role for MCP-1 in crescent formation and development of interstitial fibrosis, and indicate that in addition to recruiting inflammatory cells this chemokine is critically involved in irreversible tissue damage.
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              Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in tubulointerstitial lesions of human diabetic nephropathy.

              We previously described that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in progressive glomerular and interstitial damage in inflammatory renal diseases. However, the expression of MCP-1 in diabetic nephropathy remains to be investigated. We examined whether locally expressed MCP-1 participates in human diabetic nephropathy via recruiting and activating monocytes/macrophages (Mphi). Urinary and serum MCP-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 45 patients with diabetic nephropathy. The presence of MCP-1 in diseased kidneys was determined by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses. Urinary MCP-1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with diabetic nephrotic syndrome and advanced tubulointerstitial lesions. Moreover, urinary levels of MCP-1 were well correlated with the number of CD68-positive infiltrating cells in the interstitium. In contrast, serum MCP-1 levels remained similar to those of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, we detected the MCP-1-positive cells in the interstitium of diabetic nephropathy via both immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses. These observations suggest that locally produced MCP-1 may be involved in the development of advanced diabetic nephropathy, especially in the formation of tubulointerstitial lesions possibly through Mphi recruitment and activation. Moreover, up-regulation of MCP-1 may be a common pathway involved in the progressive tubulointerstitial damage in diabetic nephropathy as well as inflammatory renal diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                September 2007
                05 September 2007
                : 30
                : 5
                : 306-313
                Affiliations
                aFaculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, and bFederal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil
                Article
                107806 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:306–313
                10.1159/000107806
                17804911
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 34, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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