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      Linkage disequilibrium and persistence of phase in Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and Angus cattle.

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      Genetics

      Genetics Society of America

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          Abstract

          When a genetic marker and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) are in linkage disequilibrium (LD) in one population, they may not be in LD in another population or their LD phase may be reversed. The objectives of this study were to compare the extent of LD and the persistence of LD phase across multiple cattle populations. LD measures r and r(2) were calculated for syntenic marker pairs using genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were genotyped in Dutch and Australian Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls, Australian Angus cattle, and New Zealand Friesian and Jersey cows. Average r(2) was approximately 0.35, 0.25, 0.22, 0.14, and 0.06 at marker distances 10, 20, 40, 100, and 1000 kb, respectively, which indicates that genomic selection within cattle breeds with r(2) >or= 0.20 between adjacent markers would require approximately 50,000 SNPs. The correlation of r values between populations for the same marker pairs was close to 1 for pairs of very close markers (<10 kb) and decreased with increasing marker distance and the extent of divergence between the populations. To find markers that are in LD with QTL across diverged breeds, such as HF, Jersey, and Angus, would require approximately 300,000 markers.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs

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            Linkage disequilibrium in humans: models and data.

            In this review, we describe recent empirical and theoretical work on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome, comparing the predictions of simple population-genetic models to available data. Several studies report significant LD over distances longer than those predicted by standard models, whereas some data from short, intergenic regions show less LD than would be expected. The apparent discrepancies between theory and data present a challenge-both to modelers and to human geneticists-to identify which important features are missing from our understanding of the biological processes that give rise to LD. Salient features may include demographic complications such as recent admixture, as well as genetic factors such as local variation in recombination rates, gene conversion, and the potential segregation of inversions. We also outline some implications that the emerging patterns of LD have for association-mapping strategies. In particular, we discuss what marker densities might be necessary for genomewide association scans.
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              Patterns of linkage disequilibrium in the human genome.

              Particular alleles at neighbouring loci tend to be co-inherited. For tightly linked loci, this might lead to associations between alleles in the population a property known as linkage disequilibrium (LD). LD has recently become the focus of intense study in the hope that it might facilitate the mapping of complex disease loci through whole-genome association studies. This approach depends crucially on the patterns of LD in the human genome. In this review, we draw on empirical studies in humans and Drosophila, as well as simulation studies, to assess the current state of knowledge about patterns of LD, and consider the implications for the use of LD as a mapping tool.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genetics
                Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                0016-6731
                0016-6731
                Jul 2008
                : 179
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] CRV, 6800 AL Arnhem, The Netherlands. roos.s@hg.nl
                Article
                genetics.107.084301
                10.1534/genetics.107.084301
                2475750
                18622038

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