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      The Smartphone Addiction Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Version for Adolescents

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , *

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Objective

          This study was designed to investigate the revised and short version of the smartphone addiction scale and the proof of its validity in adolescents. In addition, it suggested cutting off the values by gender in order to determine smartphone addiction and elaborate the characteristics of smartphone usage in adolescents.

          Method

          A set of questionnaires were provided to a total of 540 selected participants from April to May of 2013. The participants consisted of 343 boys and 197 girls, and their average age was 14.5 years old. The content validity was performed on a selection of shortened items, while an internal-consistency test was conducted for the verification of its reliability. The concurrent validity was confirmed using SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted to suggest cut-off.

          Results

          The 10 final questions were selected using content validity. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911. The SAS-SV was significantly correlated with the SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. The SAS-SV scores of gender (p<.001) and self-evaluation of smartphone addiction (p<.001) showed significant difference. The ROC analysis results showed an area under a curve (AUC) value of 0.963(0.888–1.000), a cut-off value of 31, sensitivity value of 0.867 and specificity value of 0.893 in boys while an AUC value of 0.947(0.887–1.000), a cut-off value of 33, sensitivity value of 0.875, and a specificity value of 0.886 in girls.

          Conclusions

          The SAS-SV showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of smartphone addiction. The smartphone addiction scale short version, which was developed and validated in this study, could be used efficiently for the evaluation of smartphone addiction in community and research areas.

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          Most cited references 3

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          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)

          Objective The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. Methods A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. Results Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale “disturbance of reality testing” was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p<0.05), education (p<0.05), and self-reported smartphone addiction scores (p<0.001) in SAS. Conclusions This study developed the first scale of the smartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.
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            Addictive personality and problematic mobile phone use.

            Mobile phone use is banned or regulated in some circumstances. Despite recognized safety concerns and legal regulations, some people do not refrain from using mobile phones. Such problematic mobile phone use can be considered to be an addiction-like behavior. To find the potential predictors, we examined the correlation between problematic mobile phone use and personality traits reported in addiction literature, which indicated that problematic mobile phone use was a function of gender, self-monitoring, and approval motivation but not of loneliness. These findings suggest that the measurements of these addictive personality traits would be helpful in the screening and intervention of potential problematic users of mobile phones.
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              • Article: not found

              Gender differences in adolescent symptomatology: a normative study.

              A widespread belief that adolescence is marked by disturbance may have contributed to a lack of interest in psychiatric symptomatology in adolescents. There are few studies of adolescent gender differences. Adolescents (N = 497) from three Chicago area high schools, representing a broad socioeconomic spectrum, were administered the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, the Delinquency Checklist, and the Symptom Checklist in which they self-report on self-image, experience of symptoms, and delinquent behavior, respectively. Results show that adolescent girls are more prone to report inwardly directed psychiatric symptomatology, such as depression and anxiety, than are adolescent boys; adolescent boys are more prone to report acting out behaviorally. Gender is an important aspect of treating adolescent patients.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                31 December 2013
                : 8
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Addiction Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [3 ]College of Nursing, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: MK DJK HC SY. Performed the experiments: MK HC. Analyzed the data: MK HC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MK DJK HC SY. Wrote the paper: MK.

                Article
                PONE-D-13-30571
                10.1371/journal.pone.0083558
                3877074

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Funding
                These authors have no support or funding to report.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Mathematics
                Statistics
                Biostatistics
                Statistical Methods
                Medicine
                Clinical Research Design
                Survey Research
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Test Evaluation
                Epidemiology
                Survey Methods
                Mental Health
                Psychiatry
                Adolescent Psychiatry

                Uncategorized

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