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      Vision-Based Finger Detection, Tracking, and Event Identification Techniques for Multi-Touch Sensing and Display Systems


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          This study presents efficient vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification techniques and a low-cost hardware framework for multi-touch sensing and display applications. The proposed approach uses a fast bright-blob segmentation process based on automatic multilevel histogram thresholding to extract the pixels of touch blobs obtained from scattered infrared lights captured by a video camera. The advantage of this automatic multilevel thresholding approach is its robustness and adaptability when dealing with various ambient lighting conditions and spurious infrared noises. To extract the connected components of these touch blobs, a connected-component analysis procedure is applied to the bright pixels acquired by the previous stage. After extracting the touch blobs from each of the captured image frames, a blob tracking and event recognition process analyzes the spatial and temporal information of these touch blobs from consecutive frames to determine the possible touch events and actions performed by users. This process also refines the detection results and corrects for errors and occlusions caused by noise and errors during the blob extraction process. The proposed blob tracking and touch event recognition process includes two phases. First, the phase of blob tracking associates the motion correspondence of blobs in succeeding frames by analyzing their spatial and temporal features. The touch event recognition process can identify meaningful touch events based on the motion information of touch blobs, such as finger moving, rotating, pressing, hovering, and clicking actions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification system is feasible and effective for multi-touch sensing applications in various operational environments and conditions.

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          Most cited references 43

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            On-road vehicle detection: a review.

            Developing on-board automotive driver assistance systems aiming to alert drivers about driving environments, and possible collision with other vehicles has attracted a lot of attention lately. In these systems, robust and reliable vehicle detection is a critical step. This paper presents a review of recent vision-based on-road vehicle detection systems. Our focus is on systems where the camera is mounted on the vehicle rather than being fixed such as in traffic/driveway monitoring systems. First, we discuss the problem of on-road vehicle detection using optical sensors followed by a brief review of intelligent vehicle research worldwide. Then, we discuss active and passive sensors to set the stage for vision-based vehicle detection. Methods aiming to quickly hypothesize the location of vehicles in an image as well as to verify the hypothesized locations are reviewed next. Integrating detection with tracking is also reviewed to illustrate the benefits of exploiting temporal continuity for vehicle detection. Finally, we present a critical overview of the methods discussed, we assess their potential for future deployment, and we present directions for future research.
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              A threshold selection method from gray level histogram

               N Otsu (1979)

                Author and article information

                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1 July 2011
                : 11
                : 7
                : 6868-6892
                [1 ] Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Chung-hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan; E-Mails: ylchen@ 123456csie.ntut.edu.tw (Y.-L.C.); wyliang@ 123456csie.ntut.edu.tw (W.-Y.L.); tjh@ 123456csie.ntut.edu.tw (T.-J.H.); abel0421@ 123456gmail.com (D.-C.L.)
                [2 ] Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan; E-Mails: gmuooo@ 123456gmail.com (C.-Y.C.); smyuan@ 123456gmail.com (S.-M.Y.)
                [3 ] Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Chung-hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: ylchang@ 123456ntut.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-2-2771-2171 ext. 2156.
                © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).



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