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      Blockchain Based Transaction System with Fungible and Non-Fungible Tokens for a Community-Based Energy Infrastructure

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          Abstract

          Renewable energy microgeneration is rising leading to creation of prosumer communities making it possible to extract value from surplus energy and usage flexibility. Such a peer-to-peer energy trading community requires a decentralized, immutable and access-controlled transaction system for tokenized energy assets. In this study we present a unified blockchain-based system for energy asset transactions among prosumers, electric vehicles, power companies and storage providers. Two versions of the system were implemented on Hyperledger Fabric. Assets encapsulating an identifier or unique information along with value are modelled as non-fungible tokens (NFT), while those representing value only are modelled as fungible tokens (FT). We developed the associated algorithms for token lifecycle management, analyzed their complexities and encoded them in smart contracts for performance testing. The results show that performance of both implementations are comparable for most major operations. Further, we presented a detailed comparison of FT and NFT implementations based on use-case, design, performance, advantages and disadvantages. Our implementation achieved a throughput of 448.3 transactions per second for the slowest operation (transfer) with a reasonably low infrastructure.

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          Blockchain technology in the energy sector: A systematic review of challenges and opportunities

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            Security and Privacy in Decentralized Energy Trading through Multi-signatures, Blockchain and Anonymous Messaging Streams

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              Blockchain in healthcare and health sciences – a scoping review

              Blockchain can be described as an immutable ledger, logging data entries in a decentralized manner. This new technology has been suggested to disrupt a wide range of data-driven domains, including the health domain.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                31 May 2021
                June 2021
                : 21
                : 11
                : 3822
                Affiliations
                Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Stavanger, 4021 Stavanger, Norway; antorweep.chakravorty@ 123456uis.no (A.C.); chunming.rong@ 123456uis.no (C.R.)
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4878-7028
                Article
                sensors-21-03822
                10.3390/s21113822
                8199172
                34073110
                09527a42-47ad-49a9-a94f-5320af41f53b
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 10 May 2021
                : 28 May 2021
                Categories
                Article

                Biomedical engineering
                blockchain,prosumer,fungible,nft,peak shaving,smart grids,trading,demand response
                Biomedical engineering
                blockchain, prosumer, fungible, nft, peak shaving, smart grids, trading, demand response

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