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      Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases following Nerve Injury Is Not Mediated by Mast Cell Activation

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          Abstract

          Objective: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to inflammatory and degenerative processes in injured nerves. Since mast cells release mediators which upregulate and activate MMPs, we tested the hypothesis that activation of mast cells is responsible for changes in the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the injured peripheral nerve. Methods: The sciatic nerve was partially ligated in Wistar rats in which mast cells were stabilized with sodium cromoglycate. Expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured in the injured and contralateral nerve using gelatin zymography, and compared between mast cell-stabilized and control groups. Results: Expression and activity of MMP-9 were increased in both the injured and contralateral nerve, but activity of MMP2 was slightly reduced by nerve injury. However, stabilization of mast cells did not alter the changes in expression or activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 following nerve injury. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the contribution of MMP-9 upregulation to the inflammatory and degenerative changes that follow nerve injury is independent of mast cell activation.

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          Most cited references 23

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          How matrix metalloproteinases regulate cell behavior.

          The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 25 secreted and cell surface enzymes that process or degrade numerous pericellular substrates. Their targets include other proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, clotting factors, chemotactic molecules, latent growth factors, growth factor-binding proteins, cell surface receptors, cell-cell adhesion molecules, and virtually all structural extracellular matrix proteins. Thus MMPs are able to regulate many biologic processes and are closely regulated themselves. We review recent advances that help to explain how MMPs work, how they are controlled, and how they influence biologic behavior. These advances shed light on how the structure and function of the MMPs are related and on how their transcription, secretion, activation, inhibition, localization, and clearance are controlled. MMPs participate in numerous normal and abnormal processes, and there are new insights into the key substrates and mechanisms responsible for regulating some of these processes in vivo. Our knowledge in the field of MMP biology is rapidly expanding, yet we still do not fully understand how these enzymes regulate most processes of development, homeostasis, and disease.
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            Electrophoretic analysis of plasminogen activators in polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate and copolymerized substrates.

             E. Dowdle,  P Heussen (1980)
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              Analysis of 16 different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 to MMP-20) in the synovial membrane: different profiles in trauma and rheumatoid arthritis.

              To define the pattern of mRNA expression of all human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) described to date in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and traumatic synovial membrane, in order to differentiate between a physiological tissue remodelling pattern and that associated with inflammatory tissue destruction. Analysis of SwissProt protein and EMBL/GenBank nucleotide sequence banks, protein sequence alignment, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing were used. MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-3 (stromelysin-1), MMP-11 (stromelysin-3) and MMP-19 were constitutively expressed. MMP-1 (fibroblast type collagenase), MMP-9 (gelatinase B) and MMP-14 (MT1-MMP) were expressed in all RA, but only in 55-80% of trauma samples. MMP-13 (collagenase-3) and MMP-15 (MT2-MMP) were expressed exclusively in RA (80-90% of the samples). MMP-20 (enamelysin) was absent and MMP-8 (collagenase-2) was rarely found in RA or trauma. All other MMPs (-7, -10, -12, -16, -17) had an intermediate pattern of expression. Some MMPs without interstitial collagenase activity seem to have a constitutive pattern of expression and probably participate in physiological synovial tissue remodelling. Some MMPs are exclusively associated to RA synovitis, for example, MMP-13, which preferentially degrades type II collagen and aggrecan, and MMP-15, which activates proMMP-2 and proMMP-13 and is involved in tumour necrosis factor alpha processing. This clear cut rheumatoid/inflammatory MMP profile, more complex than has been previously appreciated, may facilitate inflammatory tissue destruction in RA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2005
                June 2005
                27 June 2005
                : 12
                : 4
                : 211-219
                Affiliations
                aSchool of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; bDepartment of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
                Article
                85653 Neuroimmunomodulation 2005;12:211–219
                10.1159/000085653
                15990452
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 44, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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