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      Bioactive compounds, phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity and effectiveness against lipid peroxidation of cell membranes of Mauritia flexuosa L. fruit extracts from three biomes in the Ecuadorian Amazon

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          Abstract

          The bioactive compounds, total antioxidant capacity and protective effect against lipid oxidative damage of red blood cell (RBC) membranes of Mauritia flexuosa L. extracts from three altitude levels (low, middle and high zones) were analyzed. The identification of the main polyphenols in the fruit was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis, while High-Performance Liquid Chromatography - Diode Array Detector was applied for the vitamin C and carotenoid analysis. The ability of the extracts (methanolic, free polyphenols and bound polyphenols) to protect RBC membranes against oxidative destruction was assessed utilizing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS) assay. Among the 14 phenolic compounds identified, quercetin glycosides were the most predominant ones. The fruit from the middle altitude zone showed higher vitamin C and lutein contents than those from the low and high areas, whilst higher values of β-Carotene were obtained in M. flexuosa L. from the low zone. The contents of flavonoids and total polyphenols were lower in fruit from the low zone, whilst the fruit from the middle zone had the highest values. Similar results were observed in the results of the antioxidant capacity assays. However, a significant difference was not found in the protective effect of the extracts from the three altitude zones against lipid peroxidation in RBC membranes.

          Abstract

          Food Analysis, Altitude zones, Bioactive compounds, Lipid peroxidation, Mauritia flexuosa L, Ecuador, Amazonian fruits.

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          Most cited references 55

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          A review of the dietary flavonoid, kaempferol on human health and cancer chemoprevention.

          Kaempferol is a polyphenol antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Many studies have described the beneficial effects of dietary kaempferol in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, especially cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between kaempferol intake and cancer. Kaempferol may help by augmenting the body's antioxidant defence against free radicals, which promote the development of cancer. At the molecular level, kaempferol has been reported to modulate a number of key elements in cellular signal transduction pathways linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. Significantly, kaempferol inhibits cancer cell growth and angiogenesis and induces cancer cell apoptosis, but on the other hand, kaempferol appears to preserve normal cell viability, in some cases exerting a protective effect. The aim of this review is to synthesize information concerning the extraction of kaempferol, as well as to provide insights into the molecular basis of its potential chemo-preventative activities, with an emphasis on its ability to control intracellular signaling cascades that regulate the aforementioned processes. Chemoprevention using nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of kaempferol is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent.

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              The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay.

              A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Elsevier
                2405-8440
                16 October 2020
                October 2020
                16 October 2020
                : 6
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [a ]Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Puyo, 160150, Ecuador
                [b ]Carrera de Biotecnología de los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Quito, 170525, Ecuador
                [c ]AgroSciences & Food Research Group, Universidad de Las Américas, Quito, 170125, Ecuador
                [d ]Grupo de Investigación en Polifenoles (GIP-USAL), Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, Salamanca, 37007, Spain
                [e ]Unidad de Excelencia Producción, Agrícola y Medioambiente (AGRIENVIRONMENT), Parque Científico, Universidad de Salamanca, 37185, Salamanca, Spain
                [f ]King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. jose.alvarez@ 123456udla.edu.ec
                Article
                S2405-8440(20)32054-5 e05211
                10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05211
                7569302
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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