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      The 482Ser of PPARGC1A and 12Pro of PPARG2 Alleles Are Associated with Reduction of Metabolic Risk Factors Even Obesity in a Mexican-Mestizo Population

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          The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between functional polymorphisms Gly482Ser in PPARGC1A and Pro12Ala in PPARG2 with the presence of obesity and metabolic risk factors. We included 375 individuals characterized as Mexican-Mestizos and classified by the body mass index (BMI). Body dimensions and distribution of body fat were measured. The HOMA-IR and adiposity indexes were calculated. Adipokines and metabolic profile quantification were performed by ELISA and routine methods. Genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A difference between obese and nonobese subjects in polymorphism PPARGC1A distribution was observed. Among obese individuals, carriers of genotype 482Gly/Gly were observed to have decreased body fat, BMI, and body fat ratio versus 482Ser/Ser carriers and increased resistin and leptin levels in carriers Gly+ phenotype versus Gly− phenotype. Subjects with PPARG2 Ala− phenotype (genotype 12Pro/Pro) showed a decreased HOMA-IR index versus individuals with Ala+ phenotype (genotypes 12Pro/Ala plus 12Ala/Ala). We propose that, in obese Mexican-Mestizos, the combination of alleles 482Ser in PPARGC1A and 12Pro in PPARG2 represents a reduced metabolic risk profile, even when the adiposity indexes are increased.

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          Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.

          The steady-state basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are determined by their interaction in a feedback loop. A computer-solved model has been used to predict the homeostatic concentrations which arise from varying degrees beta-cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Comparison of a patient's fasting values with the model's predictions allows a quantitative assessment of the contributions of insulin resistance and deficient beta-cell function to the fasting hyperglycaemia (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA). The accuracy and precision of the estimate have been determined by comparison with independent measures of insulin resistance and beta-cell function using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic clamps and an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The estimate of insulin resistance obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with estimates obtained by use of the euglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.88, p less than 0.0001), the fasting insulin concentration (Rs = 0.81, p less than 0.0001), and the hyperglycaemic clamp, (Rs = 0.69, p less than 0.01). There was no correlation with any aspect of insulin-receptor binding. The estimate of deficient beta-cell function obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with that derived using the hyperglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and with the estimate from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (Rs = 0.64, p less than 0.05). The low precision of the estimates from the model (coefficients of variation: 31% for insulin resistance and 32% for beta-cell deficit) limits its use, but the correlation of the model's estimates with patient data accords with the hypothesis that basal glucose and insulin interactions are largely determined by a simple feed back loop.
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            Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.

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              The mechanisms of action of PPARs.

              The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of three nuclear receptor isoforms, PPAR gamma, PPAR alpha, and PPAR delta, encoded by different genes. PPARs are ligand-regulated transcription factors that control gene expression by binding to specific response elements (PPREs) within promoters. PPARs bind as heterodimers with a retinoid X receptor and, upon binding agonist, interact with cofactors such that the rate of transcription initiation is increased. The PPARs play a critical physiological role as lipid sensors and regulators of lipid metabolism. Fatty acids and eicosanoids have been identified as natural ligands for the PPARs. More potent synthetic PPAR ligands, including the fibrates and thiazolidinediones, have proven effective in the treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes. Use of such ligands has allowed researchers to unveil many potential roles for the PPARs in pathological states including atherosclerosis, inflammation, cancer, infertility, and demyelination. Here, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of PPAR action and the involvement of the PPARs in the etiology and treatment of several chronic diseases.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                22 June 2015
                : 2015
                1Instituto de Investigación en Reumatología y del Sistema Musculo Esquelético, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada No. 950, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                2Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada No. 950, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                3Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital Civil “Dr. Juan I. Menchaca”, Salvador Quevedo y Zubieta No. 750, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                4UDG-CA-701, Grupo de Investigación Inmunometabolismo en Enfermedades Emergentes (GIIEE), Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada No. 950, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                5Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Guadalajara, Avenida General Ramón Corona No. 2514, Colonia Nuevo México, 45201 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico
                6Departamento de Farmacobiología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, 44430 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                7HMIELM, Secretaria de Salud Jalisco, Avenida Constituyentes 1075, Colonia Moderna, 44190 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                Author notes
                *Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernández: rosa_elena_n@

                Academic Editor: Tiziano Verri

                Copyright © 2015 Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article


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