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      Vellosidades Duodenales: Endoscopia de Alta Resolución, Magnificación, “Flexible Spectral Imaging Colour Enhancement” (FICE) y Correlación Histológica Translated title: Duodenal villi: High resolution endoscopy, magnification, Flexible Spectral Imaging Colour Enhancement (FICE) and histological correlation

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          Abstract

          Introducción: La endoscopia estándar no visualiza las vellosidades en la mucosa duodenal. Con alta resolución y magnificación con o sin cromoscopia se logra observarlas e identificar sus alteraciones. Objetivo: Identificar las vellosidades duodenales y sus alteraciones con endoscopia de alta resolución, magnificación y “Flexible Spectral Imaging Colour Enhancement” (FICE) corroborándolas con histología. Pacientes: Previo consentimiento se incluyeron a los individuos que tenían indicación electiva de endoscopia digestiva superior. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó endoscopia digestiva superior con equipo Fujinon Inc. EG 590 ZW, y procesador EPX 4400, consecutivamente se practicó: a) alta resolución, b) FICE, c) alta resolución, d) magnificación, e) FICE y f) alta resolución. Se tomaron dos muestras en bulbo y en segunda porción duodenal, evaluadas por los patólogos sin información del paciente. El procedimiento se grabó, se fotografió y se guardó en JPEG en programa Power Point. Resultados: Se incluyeron 33 pacientes y se evaluaron 66 áreas en 11 hombres y 22 mujeres con edades de 20-85 años y promedio 52,66 años. La correlación histológica fue: 100 % en patrón normal Z1 y 90 % en Z2. Conclusión: La magnificación endoscópica identifica los patrones de las vellosidades duodenales que se resaltan con Flexible Spectral Imaging Colour Enhancement (FICE) con alta correlación histológica.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: Standard endoscopy has limits to visualize the duodenal mucosa. With high resolution, magnification with or without chromoscopy it is possible to identify the duodenal villi and its alterations. Objective: Identify duodenal villi and its alterations with endoscopy of high resolution, magnification and Flexible Spectral Imaging Colour Enhancement (FICE). Patients: Individuals scheduled to undergo routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. Materials and methods: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed with Fujinon Inc. 590 EG and EPX 4400 processor, consecutively we practiced: a) high-resolution, b) FICE, c) high resolution d) magnification, e) FICE and f) high resolution. Two samples were taken in bulb and second duodenal portion evaluated by pathologists without patient information. The procedure was recorded, was photographed and was saved in JPEG in program Power Point. Results: 33 patients were included and 66 areas were evaluated in 11 men and 22 women with 20-85 years and 52.66 years average age range. The Z1 pattern of normal duodenal villi agreed in all cases with histopathology. Conclusion: Endoscopic magnification identifies patterns of the duodenal villi and Flexible Spectral Imaging Colour Enhancement (FICE) highlighted them. We found high histological correlation.

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          Most cited references12

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          Prospective study of prevalence and endoscopic and histopathologic characteristics of duodenal polyps in patients submitted to upper endoscopy.

          Retrospective studies of duodenal polyps have shown a prevalence of 0.3%-1.5% in patients referred to upper endoscopy, and histopathologic classifications have been inconsistent. A prospective consecutive study was carried out in 584 patients referred to diagnostic upper endoscopy. Symptoms were registered on a questionnaire, endoscopic and histopathologic findings on standard forms. The same pathologist evaluated all biopsy specimens. Twenty-seven patients had polyps in the first and/or second part of the duodenum, for a prevalence 4.6%. Sixteen polyps were either inflammatory (nine polyps) or ectopic gastric mucosa (seven polyps). Both of these polyp types were practically always non-solitary, sessile, small, and located in the duodenal bulb. Seven polyps were covered by normal mucosa, three being endoscopically typical lipomas. Two polyps were adenomas (0.4% of all the patients and 7% of the polyps), and both were found in the descending part. One hyperplastic polyp of the gastric type and one case of fibrosis were found. 1) Duodenal polyps are found in 4.6% of patients referred to upper endoscopy and should therefore be looked for. 2) Multiple, small polyps in the duodenal bulb are always benign and need neither biopsy nor treatment (in patients with familial polyposis biopsy is recommended). 3) In the descending duodenum polyps are rare, but a substantial number of them are adenomas. Biopsy is therefore mandatory in this localization.
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            Combined magnification endoscopy with chromoendoscopy in the evaluation of patients with suspected malabsorption.

            Magnification endoscopy and chromoendoscopy together have been used to evaluate mucosal detail in a number of conditions, including Barrett's esophagus and flat colonic polyps, but they have not been used to evaluate villous atrophy in the proximal small intestine. Thirty-four patients suspected of having a malabsorption syndrome (either celiac disease or tropical sprue) were evaluated using an Olympus magnification gastroscope in both normal and high magnification settings. Indigo carmine dye spraying techniques were used to assist in evaluating duodenal mucosa for evidence of villous atrophy. The accuracy of endoscopically predicted villous atrophy was assessed by histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens taken in the descending duodenum. Magnification endoscopy with dye spraying was both highly sensitive (94%) and specific (88%) in identifying patients with villous atrophy. This technique was more accurate (91%) in identifying patients with partial atrophy than standard endoscopy (9%, p < 0.01) and was also useful in identifying patients with patchy villous atrophy (5 of 5) to allow directed biopsies of abnormal tissue. Magnification endoscopy with chromoendoscopy is a promising technique for the evaluation of patients with suspected malabsorption. This technique is especially valuable in patients with partial atrophy, where villous abnormalities can be patchy and the duodenum usually appears normal during standard endoscopy.
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              How good is zoom endoscopy for assessment of villous atrophy in coeliac disease?

              The advent of magnification endoscopy may allow the macroscopic detection of unrecognised villous atrophy in patients with unsuspected coeliac disease. In addition, it may also be possible to use this method to assess the degree of villous atrophy. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of zoom endoscopy for the macroscopic evaluation of villous atrophy, in comparison with histological evaluation. The zoom endoscope provided a magnification capability of x 115. A scoring system (Z score) was devised for grading the appearances of villous atrophy: "Z1" for normal mucosa, "Z2" for stunted villi, "Z3" for markedly stunted villi (with ridges and pits) and "Z4" for a flat mucosa. A total of 53 consecutive patients with treated coeliac disease were followed up over almost 2 years using the Olympus GIF-Q240Z zoom endoscope; a total of 80 procedures were carried out. Four biopsies from the second part of the duodenum were taken from each patient for histological assessment. Histological assessment of villous atrophy was made by a pathologist blinded to the Z score. The correlation between the Z score and the histological score was assessed using the weighted kappa method. The kappa score for the correlation between the macroscopic assessment of villous atrophy and the histology was 0.631, indicating fair to good reproducibility. Agresti's method revealed a very strong baseline association between the two methods ( P < 0.001). Zoom endoscopy had a positive predictive value of 83 % and a negative predictive value of 77 % in detecting villous atrophy. Our findings suggest that zoom endoscopy may be valuable in assessing the degree of villous atrophy. However, further studies are needed to assess its efficacy in routine practice as a screening or case-finding tool.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gen
                Gen
                Gen
                Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología (Caracas )
                0016-3503
                December 2012
                : 66
                : 4
                : 260-265
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Central de Venezuela
                [2 ] Universidad Central de Venezuela Venezuela
                [3 ] Universidad Central de Venezuela Venezuela
                Article
                S0016-35032012000400008
                096ae37e-a45a-4ebb-9f62-bebfd503f700

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0016-3503&lng=en

                Duodenal villi,small intestinal villi,duodenal magnification endoscopy,virtual chromoendoscopy,FICE,Vellosidad Duodenal,Vellosidad Intestinal,Magnificación endoscópica de duodeno,Cromoscopia Virtual

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