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      Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Guidelines for Developing an Institutional Program to Enhance Antimicrobial Stewardship

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          Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis.

          A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A search of the MEDLINE database for studies published during the period of 1 January 1980 through 31 December 2000 and a bibliographic review identified English-language studies of S. aureus bacteremia. Studies were included if they contained the numbers of and mortality rates for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. Data were extracted on demographic characteristics of the patients, adjustment for severity and comorbid illness, source of bacteremia, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for in-hospital mortality. When the results were pooled with a random-effects model, a significant increase in mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia was evident (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42; P<.001); significant heterogeneity was present. We explored the reasons for heterogeneity by means of subgroup analyses. MRSA bacteremia is associated with significantly higher mortality rate than is MSSA bacteremia.
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            Colistin: the revival of polymyxins for the management of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections.

            The emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria and the lack of new antibiotics to combat them have led to the revival of polymyxins, an old class of cationic, cyclic polypeptide antibiotics. Polymyxin B and polymyxin E (colistin) are the 2 polymyxins used in clinical practice. Most of the reintroduction of polymyxins during the last few years is related to colistin. The polymyxins are active against selected gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species. These drugs have been used extensively worldwide for decades for local use. However, parenteral use of these drugs was abandoned approximately 20 years ago in most countries, except for treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis, because of reports of common and serious nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Recent studies of patients who received intravenous polymyxins for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii infections of various types, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections, have led to the conclusion that these antibiotics have acceptable effectiveness and considerably less toxicity than was reported in old studies.
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              The relationship between antimicrobial resistance and patient outcomes: mortality, length of hospital stay, and health care costs.

              There is an association between the development of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, and gram-negative bacilli and increases in mortality, morbidity, length of hospitalization, and cost of health care. For many patients, inadequate or delayed therapy and severe underlying disease are primarily responsible for the adverse outcomes of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Patients with infections due to antimicrobial-resistant organisms have higher costs (approximately 6,000-30,000 dollars) than do patients with infections due to antimicrobial-susceptible organisms; the difference in cost is even greater when patients infected with antimicrobial-resistant organisms are compared with patients without infection. Strategies to prevent nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms are essential.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                University of Chicago Press
                1537-6591
                1058-4838
                January 15 2007
                January 15 2007
                January 15 2007
                January 15 2007
                January 15 2007
                January 15 2007
                : 44
                : 2
                : 159-177
                Article
                10.1086/510393
                17173212
                © 2007

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