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      Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children: Niños Activos

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          Abstract

          Background

          Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children’s PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, and (4) objectively measured environmental factors, to PA parenting practices.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional sample of Latino parents (n = 240) from Harris County, TX in 2011–2012 completed validated questionnaires to assess PA parenting practices, acculturation, familism, perception of their neighborhood environment, and demographics. Home addresses were mapped and linked to Census block-level crime and traffic data. Distance to the closest park was mapped by GIS. Regression models were built in a hierarchical step-wise fashion.

          Results

          Combined models showed R 2 of 6.8% to 38.9% for different parenting practices. Significant correlations included sociodemographic variables with having outdoor toys available, psychological control, and promotion of inactivity. Cultural factors correlated with PA safety concern practices. Perceived environmental attributes correlated with five of seven parenting practices, while objectively-measured environmental attributes did not significantly correlate with PA parenting practices.

          Conclusion

          Interventions promoting PA among Latino preschoolers may need to address the social-ecological context in which families live to effectively promote PA parenting, especially parents’ perceptions of neighborhoods.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.

           G Koch,  J R Landis (1977)
          This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
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            Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010.

            The prevalence of childhood obesity increased in the 1980s and 1990s but there were no significant changes in prevalence between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008 in the United States. To present the most recent estimates of obesity prevalence in US children and adolescents for 2009-2010 and to investigate trends in obesity prevalence and body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Cross-sectional analyses of a representative sample (N = 4111) of the US child and adolescent population (birth through 19 years of age) with measured heights and weights from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Prevalence of high weight-for-recumbent length (≥95th percentile on the growth charts) among infants and toddlers from birth to 2 years of age and obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts) among children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years. Analyses of trends in obesity by sex and race/ethnicity, and analyses of trends in BMI within sex-specific age groups for 6 survey periods (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010) over 12 years. In 2009-2010, 9.7% (95% CI, 7.6%-12.3%) of infants and toddlers had a high weight-for-recumbent length and 16.9% (95% CI, 15.4%-18.4%) of children and adolescents from 2 through 19 years of age were obese. There was no difference in obesity prevalence among males (P = .62) or females (P = .65) between 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. However, trend analyses over a 12-year period indicated a significant increase in obesity prevalence between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 in males aged 2 through 19 years (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10) but not in females (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.07) per 2-year survey cycle. There was a significant increase in BMI among adolescent males aged 12 through 19 years (P = .04) but not among any other age group or among females. In 2009-2010, the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents was 16.9%; this was not changed compared with 2007-2008.
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              Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion.

               D Stokols (2015)
              Health promotion programs often lack a clearly specified theoretical foundation or are based on narrowly conceived conceptual models. For example, lifestyle modification programs typically emphasize individually focused behavior change strategies, while neglecting the environmental underpinnings of health and illness. This article compares three distinct, yet complementary, theoretical perspectives on health promotion: behavioral change, environmental enhancement, and social ecological models. Key strengths and limitations of each perspective are examined, and core principles of social ecological theory are used to derive practical guidelines for designing and evaluating community health promotion programs. Directions for future health promotion research are discussed, including studies examining the role of intermediaries (e.g., corporate decision-makers, legislators) in promoting the well-being of others, and those evaluating the duration and scope of intervention outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central
                1471-2458
                2014
                10 July 2014
                : 14
                : 707
                Affiliations
                [1 ]USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX USA
                [2 ]Academic General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX USA
                [3 ]Institute of Human Performance, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR China
                [4 ]Centre of Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia
                [5 ]Affiliation where this work was done: Texas Obesity Research Center, Department of Health & Human Performance, University of Houston, Houston, USA
                [6 ]Present affiliation: College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
                [7 ]Affiliation where this work was done: USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX USA
                [8 ]Present affiliation: Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, and the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA
                Article
                1471-2458-14-707
                10.1186/1471-2458-14-707
                4226995
                25011669
                Copyright © 2014 O’Connor et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Public health

                child, physical activity, parenting, correlates, environment, neighborhood, acculturation, latino

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