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      The effect of varied exercise intensity on antioxidant function, aortic endothelial function, and serum lipids in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Translated title: El efecto del ejercicio de intensidad variada sobre la función antioxidante, la función endotelial aórtica y los lípidos séricos en ratas con enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico.


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          Abstract This study aimed to compare the effects of diet and exercise of different intensities on antioxidant function, aortic endothelial cell function and serum lipids in NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (180-220g) were randomly divided into two experimental groups and fed either a standard rodent chow diet (CON; n=10) or a high-fat diet (HFD; n=40). After 16 weeks, the animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into a high-fat control group (HFC; n=10) or three exercise training groups: HFD and low-intensity exercise (LE; n=10), HFD and moderate-intensity exercise (ME; n=10), and HFD and incremental intensity exercise (IE; n=10). These experimental rats keep sedentary or trained for the next six weeks. A detection kit was used to detect nitric oxide synthase (NOs), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and other markers of aortic oxidative stress. The expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry. TC, TG, and other lipid metabolism parameters were detected by an automatic analyzer. Exercise with different intensities could improve lipid metabolism, enhance antioxidant function, reduce MDA (P<0.01), increase NO (P<0.01), and improve the expression of e-NOS and ET-1 (P<0.01) protein levels in NAFLD rats. Decreased blood lipids were exhibited in all exercise groups. Notably, the moderate-intensity exercise demonstrated more effect on increasing glutathione (GSH) contents (P<0.01) and decreased the expression of ET-1 protein levels (P<0.01). The results showed that exercise at different intensities improved lipid metabolism and enhanced anti-oxidation function. Moderate exercise could improve the function of aortic endothelial cells.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar los efectos de la dieta y el ejercicio a diferentes intensidades sobre la función antioxidante, la función de las células endoteliales aórticas y los lípidos séricos en ratas NAFLD (con enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico) y alimentados con una dieta estándar para roedores (CON; n = 10) o con una dieta alta en grasas (HFD; n = 40). Después de 16 semanas, los animales que recibieron HFD se separaron aleatoriamente en un grupo de control alto en grasas (HFC; n=10) o tres grupos de entrenamiento físico: HFD y ejercicio de baja intensidad (LE; n=10), HFD y ejercicio de intensidad moderada (ME; n=10), y HFD y ejercicio de intensidad incremental (IE; n=10). Estas ratas experimentales se mantuvieron sedentarias o entrenadas durante las próximas seis semanas. Se utilizó un kit de detección para determinar óxido nítrico sintetasa (NO), óxido nítrico (NO), malondialdehído (MDA) y otros marcadores de estrés oxidativo aórtico. Los niveles de expresión de la óxido nítrico sintetasa endotelial (e-NOS) y endotelina-1 (ET-1) se detectaron mediante inmunohistoquímica. El analizador automático detectó TC, TG y otros parámetros del metabolismo de los lípidos. El ejercicio con diferente intensidad mejoró el metabolismo de los lípidos, mejoró la función antioxidante, redujo la MDA (P <0,01), aumentó el NO (P <0,01) y mejoró la expresión de los niveles de proteína e-NOS y ET-1 (P <0,01) en ratas NAFLD. Se observó una disminución de los lípidos en sangre en todos los grupos de ejercicio. En particular, el ejercicio de intensidad moderada demostró un mayor efecto en el aumento del contenido de glutatión (GSH) (P<0,01) y disminuyó la expresión de los niveles de proteína ET-1 (P<0,01). Los resultados mostraron que el ejercicio a diferentes intensidades mejoró el metabolismo de los lípidos y mejoró función antioxidante. El ejercicio moderado podría mejorar la función de las células endoteliales aórticas.

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          Most cited references48

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          The vascular endothelium is a multifunctional organ and is critically involved in modulating vascular tone and structure. Endothelial cells produce a wide range of factors that also regulate cellular adhesion, thromboresistance, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and vessel wall inflammation. Thus, endothelial function is important for the homeostasis of the body and its dysfunction is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes. Patients with diabetes invariably show an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Therefore, understanding and treating endothelial dysfunction is a major focus in the prevention of vascular complications associated with all forms of diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may point to new management strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. This review will focus on the mechanisms and therapeutics that specifically target endothelial dysfunction in the context of a diabetic setting. Mechanisms including altered glucose metabolism, impaired insulin signaling, low-grade inflammatory state, and increased reactive oxygen species generation will be discussed. The importance of developing new pharmacological approaches that upregulate endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthesis and target key vascular ROS-producing enzymes will be highlighted and new strategies that might prove clinically relevant in preventing the development and/or retarding the progression of diabetes associated vascular complications. © 2013.
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            Oxygen consumption and usage during physical exercise: the balance between oxidative stress and ROS-dependent adaptive signaling.

            The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair, which at moderate levels generate physiological responses. Several factors of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and SIRT1, are modulated by exercise-associated changes in the redox milieu. PGC-1α activation could result in decreased oxidative challenge, either by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and/or by an increased number of mitochondria that allows lower levels of respiratory activity for the same degree of ATP generation. Endogenous thiol antioxidants glutathione and thioredoxin are modulated with high oxygen consumption and ROS generation during physical exercise, controlling cellular function through redox-sensitive signaling and protein-protein interactions. Endurance exercise-related angiogenesis, up to a significant degree, is regulated by ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Moreover, the exercise-associated ROS production could be important to DNA methylation and post-translation modifications of histone residues, which create heritable adaptive conditions based on epigenetic features of chromosomes. Accumulating data indicate that exercise with moderate intensity has systemic and complex health-promoting effects, which undoubtedly involve regulation of redox homeostasis and signaling.
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              The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Vascular dysfunction is a precursor to the atherosclerotic cascade, significantly increasing susceptibility to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Previous studies have revealed a strong relationship between vascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Thus, since high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent method of improving CRF, several small randomized trials have investigated the impact on vascular function of HIIT relative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT).

                Author and article information

                Investigación Clínica
                Invest. clín
                Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia (Maracaibo, Zulia, Venezuela )
                December 2022
                : 63
                : 4
                : 327-343
                [1] Xi’an Shaanxi orgnameXi’an Shiyou University orgdiv1Department of Physical Education China
                [2] Ankang Shaanxi orgnameAnkang University orgdiv1College of Physical Education China
                S0535-51332022000400327 S0535-5133(22)06300400327

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

                : 16 July 2022
                : 09 May 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 17

                SciELO Venezuela

                antioxidant,lipid metabolism,diferente intensidad de ejercicio,NAFLD,función de las células endoteliales aórticas,metabolismo de los lípidos,different exercise intensity,aortic endothelial cell function,antioxidante


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