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      Atrial fibrillation is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in ischemic stroke patients

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          In-hospital mortality rate of acute ischemic stroke patients remains between 3% and 18%. For improving the quality of stroke care, we investigated the factors that contribute to the risk of in-hospital mortality in acute ischemic stroke patients.

          Materials and methods

          Between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011, 2,556 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to a stroke unit were included in this study. Factors such as demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and complications related to in-hospital mortality were assessed.


          Of the 2,556 ischemic stroke patients, 157 received thrombolytic therapy. Eighty of the 2,556 patients (3.1%) died during hospitalization. Of the 157 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, 14 (8.9%) died during hospitalization. History of atrial fibrillation (AF, P<0.01) and stroke severity ( P<0.01) were independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality. AF, stroke severity, cardioembolism stroke, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors of hemorrhagic transformation. Herniation and sepsis were the most common complications of stroke that were attributed to in-hospital mortality. Approximately 70% of in-hospital mortality was related to stroke severity (total middle cerebral artery occlusion with herniation, basilar artery occlusion, and hemorrhagic transformation). The other 30% of in-hospital mortality was related to sepsis, heart disease, and other complications.


          AF is associated with higher in-hospital mortality rate than in patients without AF. For improving outcome of stroke patients, we also need to focus to reduce serious neurological or medical complications.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Predictors of in-hospital mortality and attributable risks of death after ischemic stroke: the German Stroke Registers Study Group.

          There is a lack of information about factors associated with in-hospital death and the impact of neurological complications on early outcome for patients with stroke treated in community settings. We investigated predictors for in-hospital mortality and attributable risks of death after ischemic stroke in a pooled analysis of large German stroke registers. Stroke patients admitted to hospitals cooperating within the German Stroke Registers Study Group (ADSR) between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2000, were analyzed. The ADSR is a network of regional stroke registers, combining data from 104 academic and community hospitals throughout Germany. The impact of patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, their comorbid conditions, and the treating hospital expertise in stroke care on in-hospital mortality was analyzed using Cox regression analysis. Attributable risks of death for medical and neurological complications were calculated. A total of 13 440 ischemic stroke patients were included. Overall in-hospital mortality was 4.9%. In women, higher age (P<.001), severity of stroke defined by number of neurological deficits (P<.001), and atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.6) were independent predictors for in-hospital death. In men, diabetes (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8) and previous stroke (HR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9) had a significant negative impact on early outcome in addition to the factors identified for women. The complication with the highest attributable risk proportion was increased intracranial pressure, accounting for 94% (95% CI, 93.9%-94.1%) of deaths among patients with this complication. Pneumonia was the complication with the highest attributable proportion of death in the entire stroke population, accounting for 31.2% (95% CI, 30.9%-31.5%) of all deaths. More than 50% of all in-hospital deaths were caused by serious medical or neurological complications (54.4%; 95% CI, 54.3%-54.5%). Substantial differences were found in the impact of comorbid conditions on early outcome for men and women. Programs aiming at an improvement in short-term outcome after stroke should focus especially on a reduction of pneumonia and an early treatment of increased intracranial pressure.
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            The effect of warfarin and intensity of anticoagulation on outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage.

            Warfarin sodium is highly effective for prevention of embolic stroke, particularly in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, but its expected benefit can be offset by risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We studied the determinants of ICH outcome to quantify the independent effect of warfarin. Consecutive patients with supratentorial ICH treated in a tertiary care hospital with a neurointensive care unit were prospectively identified during a 7-year period, and data on hemorrhage location, clinical characteristics, and warfarin use were collected. Independent predictors of 3-month mortality were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 435 consecutive patients aged 55 years or older, 102 (23.4%) were taking warfarin at the time of ICH. Three-month mortality was 25.8% for those not taking warfarin and 52.0% for those taking warfarin. Independent predictors of death were warfarin use (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.8), age 70 years or older (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0), and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3). Although 68.0% of all warfarin-related hemorrhages occurred at an international normalized ratio (INR) of 3.0 or less, increasing degrees of anticoagulation were strongly associated with increasing risk of death compared with no warfarin use. Patients taking warfarin had a doubling in the rate of intracerebral hemorrhage mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that careful control of the INR, already known to limit the risk of warfarin-related ICH, may also limit its severity.
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              Predicting functional outcome and survival after acute ischemic stroke.

              Disability and mortality represent the most relevant clinical outcome after acute ischemic stroke. However, validated and comprehensive prognostic models for recovery have not been developed. An accurate model including all previously suggested independent outcome predictors could improve the design and analysis of clinical trials. We therefore developed prognostic models for functional dependence and death after 100 days in a large cohort of stroke patients. From the German Stroke Database, 1754 prospectively collected records of patients with acute ischemic stroke were used for the development of prognostic models. Intubated patients and patients with low functional status before stroke were excluded. Functional independence was defined as a Barthel Index >/=95 after 100 days. Prognostic factors assessable within 72 hours after admission were identified by a systematic literature review. The final models of binary logistic regression analyses were internally validated and calibrated. The resulting cross-validated and calibrated models correctly classified more than 80 % of the patients and yielded the following prognostic factors for functional independence: Age, right and left arm paresis at admission, NIH-Stroke Scale at admission, Rankin Scale 48-72 hours later, gender, prior stroke, diabetes, fever, lenticulostriate infarction, neurological complications. The following variables were identified as prognostic factors for death: Age, NIH-Stroke Scale at admission, and fever. Our work gives an important insight into prognostic factors after acute ischemic stroke and presents predictive models with high prognostic accuracy. Together with a prospective validation study, currently underway, we hence hope to improve the prediction of functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                29 June 2016
                : 12
                : 1057-1064
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital
                [2 ]Department of Nursing, Chung Jen Junior College of Nursing, Health Science and Management, Chiayi
                [3 ]Department of Family Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cheung-Ter Ong, Department of Neurology, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, 539 Chung-Shao Road, Chiayi, Taiwan, Republic of China, Tel +886 5276 5041, Email ctong98@ 123456yahoo.com.tw
                © 2016 Ong et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                thrombolytic therapy, risk factors, outcome, atrial fibrillation, brain infarction


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