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      A Scoping Review of the Validity, Reliability and Conceptual Alignment of Food Literacy Measures for Adults

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          Abstract

          The measurement of food literacy has recently gained momentum globally. The aim of this paper is to review the literature in order to describe and analyse the measurement of adult food literacy. The objectives are to i) identify tools that explicitly measure food literacy in adults; ii) summarise their psychometric properties; and iii) critique tool items against the four domains and 11 components of food literacy, as conceptualised by Vidgen and Gallegos. Using the PRISMA guidelines, a search of seven databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCOhost, A+ Education, and ProQuest) was undertaken. 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Papers reported on either the development of a tool to explicitly measure food literacy or a part thereof ( n = 5); food literacy strategy indicators ( n = 1); tools developed to evaluate a food literacy intervention ( n = 3); or tools to measure food literacy as a characteristic within a broader study ( n = 3). Six tools captured all four domains. None measured all components. Items measuring the same component varied considerably. Most tools referenced a theoretical framework, were validated and reliable. This review will assist practitioners select and develop tools for the measurement of food literacy in their context.

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          Most cited references 47

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          The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS): development, design, and dissemination.

          Little is known about access, sources, and trust of cancer-related information, or factors that facilitate or hinder communication on a population-wide basis. Through a careful developmental process involving extensive input from many individuals and organizations, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to help fill this gap. This nationally representative telephone survey of 6,369 persons aged > or = 18 years among the general population was first conducted in 2002-2003, and will be repeated biennially depending on availability of funding. The purpose of creating a population survey to be repeated on a cyclical basis is to track trends in the public's rapidly changing use of new communication technologies while charting progress in meeting health communication goals in terms of the public's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The HINTS survey instrument was built upon extant models of health communication and behavior change, taking into account the rapidly changing communication environment. Questions in the survey were drawn from an overall theoretical framework that juxtaposed the"push" aspects of traditional broadcast media against the"pull" aspects of new media. HINTS data will be made widely available for researchers and practitioners; it will help further research in health communication and health promotion and provide useful information for programs, policies, and practices in a variety of settings.
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            Importance of cooking skills for balanced food choices.

            A cooking skill scale was developed to measure cooking skills in a European adult population, and the relationship between cooking skills and the frequency of consumption of various food groups were examined. Moreover, it was determined which sociodemographic and psychological variables predict cooking skills. The data used in the present study are based on the first (2010) and second (2011) surveys of a yearly paper-and-pencil questionnaire (Swiss Food Panel). Data from 4436 participants (47.2% males) with a mean age of 55.5 years (SD=14.6, range 21-99) were available for analysis. The cooking skills scale was validated using a test-retest analysis, confirming that this new scale is a reliable and consistent instrument. Cooking enjoyment was the most important predictor for cooking skills, especially for men. Women had higher cooking skills in all age groups. Cooking skills correlated positively with weekly vegetable consumption, but negatively with weekly convenience food consumption frequency, even while holding the effect of health consciousness related to eating constant. In summary, cooking skills may help people to meet nutrition guidelines in their daily nutrition supply. They allow people to make healthier food choices. It is, therefore, important to teach children and teenagers how to cook and to encourage them to develop their cooking skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Measurement of household food security in the USA and other industrialised countries.

               K L Radimer (2002)
              To describe the history and current status of household food security measurement. In the 1980s evidence of rising levels of hunger was a concern for many, but disputed by some, Americans. Acknowledgement and quantification of hunger was hindered by the lack of an accepted definition and measure of hunger. Qualitative research at Cornell provided a conceptual framework, description, definition and survey items for hunger. The Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project developed an instrument used in numerous communities. Based upon these initiatives, widely accepted definitions of hunger and food insecurity, and the US Household Food Security Module for its measurement, now exist. The module classifies households as food-secure, or food-insecure without hunger or with moderate or severe hunger, and contains household-, adult- and child-referent items. Its inclusion in the Current Population Survey (CPS) since 1995 has yielded annual estimates of food insecurity. A six-item short form of the module, for surveys with severe time constraints, classifies households only as food-secure or food-insecure without or with hunger and contains no child-specific items. Surveys using the 18-item or short-form module can compare results with published national data from the CPS. Information about the module is available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/foodsecurity and http://www.fns.usda/fsec. Current research on food security measurement includes measurement of individual food insecurity and hunger, module performance regarding hunger duration and frequency, performance of the module in population sub-groups, and the effect of translations on module meaning and performance. National surveys in Canada, New Zealand and Australia also have measured food security.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                08 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 11
                : 4
                Affiliations
                School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Victoria Park Road, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059, Australia; claudia@ 123456qccs.com.au (C.A.); donnafingland@ 123456icloud.com (D.F.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: h.vidgen@ 123456qut.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-7-3138-0118
                Article
                nutrients-11-00801
                10.3390/nu11040801
                6520792
                30965628
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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