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      Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System : A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

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          Abstract

          Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Role: Co-Chair
          Role: Co-Chair
          Journal
          0047103
          2974
          Circ Res
          Circ. Res.
          Circulation research
          0009-7330
          1524-4571
          20 March 2017
          14 July 2016
          19 August 2016
          19 August 2017
          : 119
          : 5
          : e39-e75
          Author notes
          [*]

          Drs Griendling and Touyz contributed equally to this work.

          Article
          PMC5446086 PMC5446086 5446086 nihpa855637
          10.1161/RES.0000000000000110
          5446086
          27418630
          09aebf4b-589d-46be-8f9b-fe1cf66b7b17
          History
          Categories
          Article

          reactive nitrogen species,AHA Scientific Statements,free radicals,oxidants,peroxides,reactive oxygen species

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