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      The Role of Connexin Hemichannels in Inflammatory Diseases

      , , , ,
      Biology
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          The connexin protein family consists of approximately 20 members, and is well recognized as the structural unit of the gap junction channels that perforate the plasma membranes of coupled cells and, thereby, mediate intercellular communication. Gap junctions are assembled by two preexisting hemichannels on the membranes of apposing cells. Non-junctional connexin hemichannels (CxHC) provide a conduit between the cell interior and the extracellular milieu, and are believed to be in a protectively closed state under physiological conditions. The development and characterization of the peptide mimetics of the amino acid sequences of connexins have resulted in the development of a panel of blockers with a higher selectivity for CxHC, which have become important tools for defining the role of CxHC in various biological processes. It is increasingly clear that CxHC can be induced to open by pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The opening of CxHC facilitates the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, a class of endogenous molecules that are critical for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The blockade of CxHC leads to attenuated inflammation, reduced tissue injury and improved organ function in human and animal models of about thirty inflammatory diseases and disorders. These findings demonstrate that CxHC may contribute to the intensification of inflammation, and serve as a common target in the treatments of various inflammatory diseases. In this review, we provide an update on the progress in the understanding of CxHC, with a focus on the role of these channels in inflammatory diseases.

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          Most cited references168

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          The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3).

          Definitions of sepsis and septic shock were last revised in 2001. Considerable advances have since been made into the pathobiology (changes in organ function, morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation), management, and epidemiology of sepsis, suggesting the need for reexamination.
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            Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

            The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg), moderate (100 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200 mm Hg), and severe (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 mm Hg) and 4 ancillary variables for severe ARDS: radiographic severity, respiratory system compliance (≤40 mL/cm H2O), positive end-expiratory pressure (≥10 cm H2O), and corrected expired volume per minute (≥10 L/min). The draft Berlin Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P < .001) and increased median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (5 days; interquartile [IQR], 2-11; 7 days; IQR, 4-14; and 9 days; IQR, 5-17, respectively; P < .001). Compared with the AECC definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P < .001). This updated and revised Berlin Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.
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              Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990–2017: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study

              Summary Background Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. It is considered a major cause of health loss, but data for the global burden of sepsis are limited. As a syndrome caused by underlying infection, sepsis is not part of standard Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) estimates. Accurate estimates are important to inform and monitor health policy interventions, allocation of resources, and clinical treatment initiatives. We estimated the global, regional, and national incidence of sepsis and mortality from this disorder using data from GBD 2017. Methods We used multiple cause-of-death data from 109 million individual death records to calculate mortality related to sepsis among each of the 282 underlying causes of death in GBD 2017. The percentage of sepsis-related deaths by underlying GBD cause in each location worldwide was modelled using mixed-effects linear regression. Sepsis-related mortality for each age group, sex, location, GBD cause, and year (1990–2017) was estimated by applying modelled cause-specific fractions to GBD 2017 cause-of-death estimates. We used data for 8·7 million individual hospital records to calculate in-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality, stratified by underlying GBD cause. In-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality was modelled for each location using linear regression, and sepsis incidence was estimated by applying modelled case-fatality to sepsis-related mortality estimates. Findings In 2017, an estimated 48·9 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 38·9–62·9) incident cases of sepsis were recorded worldwide and 11·0 million (10·1–12·0) sepsis-related deaths were reported, representing 19·7% (18·2–21·4) of all global deaths. Age-standardised sepsis incidence fell by 37·0% (95% UI 11·8–54·5) and mortality decreased by 52·8% (47·7–57·5) from 1990 to 2017. Sepsis incidence and mortality varied substantially across regions, with the highest burden in sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, south Asia, east Asia, and southeast Asia. Interpretation Despite declining age-standardised incidence and mortality, sepsis remains a major cause of health loss worldwide and has an especially high health-related burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Funding The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the University of Pittsburgh, the British Columbia Children's Hospital Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and the Fleming Fund.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                BBSIBX
                Biology
                Biology
                MDPI AG
                2079-7737
                February 2022
                February 02 2022
                : 11
                : 2
                : 237
                Article
                10.3390/biology11020237
                35205103
                09b4073f-b2d6-4ec8-ad79-945b803bc409
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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