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      Immediate effect of pain neuroscience education for recent onset low back pain: an exploratory single arm trial

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          Responsiveness of the numeric pain rating scale in patients with low back pain.

          Cohort study of patients with low back pain (LBP) receiving physical therapy. To examine the responsiveness characteristics of the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) in patients with LBP using a variety of methods. Although several studies have assessed the reliability and validity of the NPRS, few studies have characterized its responsiveness in patients with LBP. Determination of change on the NPRS during 1 and 4 weeks was examined by calculating mean change, standardized effect size, Guyatt Responsiveness Index, area under a receiver operating characteristic curve, minimum clinically important difference, and minimum detectable change. Change in the NPRS from baseline to the 1 and 4-week follow-up was compared to the average of the patient and therapist's perceived improvement using the 15-point Global Rating of Change scale. The majority of patients had clinically meaningful improvement after both 1 and 4 weeks of rehabilitation. The standard error of measure was equal to 1.02, corresponding to a minimum detectable change of 2 points. The area under the curve at the 1 and 4-week follow-up was 0.72 (0.62, 0.81) and 0.92 (0.86, 0.97), respectively. The minimum clinically important difference at the 1 and 4-week follow-up corresponded to a change of 2.2 and 1.5 points, respectively. Clinicians can be confident that a 2-point change on the NPRS represents clinically meaningful change that exceeds the bounds of measurement error.
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            A comparison of a modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale.

            The quality of a disability scale should dictate when it is used. The purposes of this study were to examine the validity of a global rating of change as a reflection of meaningful change in patient status and to compare the measurement properties of a modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (OSW) and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QUE). Sixty-seven patients with acute, work-related low back pain referred for physical therapy participated in the study. The 2 scales were administered initially and after 4 weeks of physical therapy. The Physical Impairment Index, a measure of physical impairment due to low back pain, was measured initially and after 2 and 4 weeks. A global rating of change survey instrument was completed by each subject after 4 weeks. An interaction existed between patients defined as improved or stable based on the global rating using a 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures on the impairment index. The modified OSW showed higher levels of test-retest reliability and responsiveness compared with the QUE. The minimum clinically important difference, defined as the amount of change that best distinguishes between patients who have improved and those remaining stable, was approximately 6 points for the modified OSW and approximately 15 points for the QUE. The construct validity of the global rating of change was supported by the stability of the Physical Impairment Index across the study period in patients defined as stable by the global rating and by the decrease in physical impairment across the study period in patients defined as improved by the global rating. The modified OSW demonstrated superior measurement properties compared with the QUE.
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              The effect of neuroscience education on pain, disability, anxiety, and stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

              To evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of neuroscience education (NE) for pain, disability, anxiety, and stress in chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. Systematic searches were conducted on Biomed Central, BMJ.com, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, NLM Central Gateway, OVID, ProQuest (Digital Dissertations), PsycInfo, PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. Secondary searching (PEARLing) was undertaken, whereby reference lists of the selected articles were reviewed for additional references not identified in the primary search. All experimental studies including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nonrandomized clinical trials, and case series evaluating the effect of NE on pain, disability, anxiety, and stress for chronic MSK pain were considered for inclusion. Additional limitations: studies published in English, published within the last 10 years, and patients older than 18 years. No limitations were set on specific outcome measures of pain, disability, anxiety, and stress. Data were extracted using the participants, interventions, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) approach. Methodological quality was assessed by 2 reviewers using the Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies. This review includes 8 studies comprising 6 high-quality RCTs, 1 pseudo-RCT, and 1 comparative study involving 401 subjects. Most articles were of good quality, with no studies rated as poor or fair. Heterogeneity across the studies with respect to participants, interventions evaluated, and outcome measures used prevented meta-analyses. Narrative synthesis of results, based on effect size, established compelling evidence that NE may be effective in reducing pain ratings, increasing function, addressing catastrophization, and improving movement in chronic MSK pain. For chronic MSK pain disorders, there is compelling evidence that an educational strategy addressing neurophysiology and neurobiology of pain can have a positive effect on pain, disability, catastrophization, and physical performance. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
                Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
                Informa UK Limited
                1066-9817
                2042-6186
                October 20 2019
                June 04 2019
                October 20 2019
                : 27
                : 5
                : 267-276
                Affiliations
                [1 ] International Spine and Pain Institute, Story City, IA, USA
                [2 ] Department of Physical Therapy Education, Residency Program, St. Ambrose University, Health Sciences Center, Davenport, IA, USA
                [3 ] Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, Baylor University Graduate School, Waco, TX, USA
                Article
                10.1080/10669817.2019.1624006
                © 2019

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