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      Studies on the intrathecal humoral immune response in canine distemper encephalitis


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          Albumin and IgG were quantitated in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from dogs with demyelinating canine distemper virus (CDV) infection by means of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. The IgG index as indicator for intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis was normal in animals with non-inflammatory demyelinating lesions and elevated in dogs with inflammatory myelin lesions. Specific antibodies against CDV and myelin were quantitated in CSF and serum from 8 dogs with an elevated IgG index. Eight of these dogs had significant amounts of antimyelin antibody and 4 dogs had neutralizing anti-CDV antibody in the CSF. Whereas the pathogenetic significance of antimyelin antibodies remains uncertain, the intrathecal antiviral immune response provides a plausible explanation for immunopathologic destruction of myelin in distemper.

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          Adoptive transfer of EAE-like lesions from rats with coronavirus-induced demyelinating encephalomyelitis

          Viruses have been found to induce inflammatory demyelinating lesions in central nervous system (CNS) tissue of both animal and man, either by natural infections or after vaccination1,2. At least two different pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed for these changes, a cytopathic viral infection of oligodendroglia cells with subsequent cell death, and a host immune reaction against virus and brain antigens. We now report the occurrence of cell-mediated immune reactions against basic myelin proteins in the course of coronavirus infections in Lewis rats. Infection of rats with the murine coronavirus JHM leads to demyelinating encephalomyelitis developing several weeks to months post-infection3–7. Lymphocytes from these diseased Lewis rats can be restimulated with basic myelin protein (BMP) and adoptive transfer of these cells leads to lesions resembling those of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in recipients, which can be accompanied by a mild clinical disease. This model demonstrates that a virus infection in CNS tissue is capable of initiating an autoimmune response which may be of pathogenic importance.
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            Principles of albumin and IgG analyses in neurological disorders. III. Evaluation of IgG synthesis within the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis

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              Early events in canine distemper demyelinating encephalomyelitis.

              The early neuropathological development of demyelinating Canine Distemper Encephalomyelitis (CDE) was studied in SPF dogs. Neural tissues were examined up to 30 days post infection (PI). Three phases of activity were observed. The primary event (first observed 8 days PI) was a nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis associated with the initiation of central nervous system (CNS) infection by virus-laden lymphocytes. At 24 days PI noninflammatory demyelination occurred in well defined, subependymal foci. Cell fusion and syncytia formation accompanied this early demyelination. The third phase, found at day 30 PI in one dog showing signs of recovery, was a second wave of nonsuppurative inflammation. The initial encephalomyelitis was widely disseminated throughout the CNS but subsequent demyelination appeared to be initiated from within the ventricular system. Myelin was phagocytosed by endogeneous CNS macrophages often infected with Canine Distemper Virus (CDV). The possible importance of viral induced cell fusion as well as immune factors in the mechanism of demyelination are discussed.

                Author and article information

                J Neuroimmunol
                J. Neuroimmunol
                Journal of Neuroimmunology
                Published by Elsevier B.V.
                13 November 2002
                March 1986
                13 November 2002
                : 11
                : 1
                : 41-51
                [1 ]Institute of Comparative Neurology, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne Switzerland
                Author notes
                []Address correspondence to: M. Vandevelde, Institut für vergleichende Neurologie, Universität Bern, P.O. Box 2735, CH-3001 Berne Switzerland.
                Copyright © 1986 Published by Elsevier B.V.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 13 March 1985
                : 13 July 1985
                : 17 July 1985

                anti-cdv antibodies,antimyelin antibodies,canine distemper,igg index


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